Table 1.

HRs adjusted for individual, ecological, and environmental covariates for all cancer mortality due to long-term exposure to PM2.5

CharacteristicsHR (95% CI)Number of deaths per 1,000 person-years
Per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5
Mean ± SD: 33.7 ± 3.2; IQR: 3.3; median (range): 33.2 (26.1–92.6)1.22 (1.11–1.34)
Individual:
Age (year)1.09 (1.09–1.10)
GenderMale as ref.10.8
Female0.68 (0.63–0.74)6.3
BMI quartilesQ2–Q3 (21.6–26.3) as ref.7.5
Q1 (<21.6)1.09 (1.02–1.18)9.3
Q4 (>26.3)1.05 (0.98–1.13)7.1
SmokingNever-smoked as ref.6.1
Quitted1.49 (1.37–1.61)10.9
Current2.33 (2.13–2.54)14.2
Exercise (days/week)0.98 (0.96–1.01)
EducationSecondary or above as ref.7.5
Primary1.07 (0.98–1.16)8.5
Below primary1.08 (0.99–1.19)7.4
Monthly expenditure (US$)<1280.97 (0.87–1.09)7.3
128–3841.07 (0.98–1.16)8.0
≥385 as ref.7.4
Ecological:
Age ≥ 650.99 (0.98–1.00)
Education as tertiary level0.99 (0.98–1.00)
Income/month ≥ US $1,9231.00 (1.00–1.01)
Environmental:
Tobacco smoke (as % of smokers)1.21 (1.05–1.40)
Radon (kBqm−3)0–40 as ref.8.1
41–1001.06 (0.97–1.15)7.6
≥1011.08 (0.98–1.20)8.0
  • NOTE: 47,594 subjects were included in the model. 4,531 of them died of cancers.

  • Abbreviations: IQR, interquartile range; ref., reference.