Table 2.

OR and 95% CI for the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer comparing the 5th quintile to the 1st quintile for individual estrogens and estrogen metabolites, nested case–control study within the WHI-OS

ORa (95% CI)PtrendbFDRc
Parent estrogens
 Estrone1.54 (0.82–2.90)0.050.42
  Unconjugated estrone1.47 (0.78–2.79)0.250.48
  Conjugated estrone1.54 (0.81–2.92)0.090.42
 Estradiol0.88 (0.47–1.62)0.890.95
  Unconjugated estradiol1.50 (0.77–2.91)0.390.54
  Conjugated estradiol1.10 (0.59–2.07)0.950.95
2-Hydroxylation pathway
 2-Hydroxyestrone1.31 (0.68–2.53)0.330.49
 2-Hydroxyestradiol0.93 (0.49–1.79)0.920.95
 2-Methoxyestrone2.03 (1.06–3.88)0.020.25
  Unconjugated 2-methoxyestrone1.44 (0.74–2.79)0.290.49
  Conjugated 2-methoxyestrone1.72 (0.90–3.26)0.100.42
 2-Methoxyestradiol1.55 (0.81–2.97)0.210.48
  Unconjugated 2-methoxyestradiol1.68 (0.88–3.18)0.210.48
  Conjugated 2-methoxyestradiol1.36 (0.72–2.58)0.300.49
 2-Hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether1.11 (0.57–2.16)0.530.66
4-Hydroxylation pathway
 4-Hydroxyestrone1.46 (0.76–2.81)0.170.48
 4-Methoxyestrone1.86 (0.98–3.56)0.010.25
 4-Methoxyestradiol1.74 (0.90–3.40)0.130.46
16α-Hydroxylation pathway
 16α-Hydroxyestrone1.29 (0.68–2.45)0.320.49
 Estriol1.61 (0.84–3.07)0.100.42
  Unconjugated estriol1.21 (0.62–2.36)0.460.61
  Conjugated estriol1.35 (0.70–2.58)0.190.48
 16-Ketoestradiol1.32 (0.70–2.50)0.240.48
 16-Epiestriol1.14 (0.58–2.24)0.920.95
 17-Epiestriol1.32 (0.66–2.63)0.680.81
  • aOR from model conditioned on matching factors (age at baseline, year of blood draw, race/ethnicity, hysterectomy status, and time since last menopausal hormone use) and adjusted for body mass index, smoking status, gravidity, duration of oral contraceptive use, and never/former menopausal hormone therapy use.

  • bP values for trend across quintile (median value of category).

  • cFDR q-value.