Table 3.

Distribution of study characteristics by categories of participants' consumption of raw garlic

Raw garlic consumption
Never (N = 357)<2 times/week (N = 244)≥2 times/week (N = 239)
VariableN (%)N (%)N (%)Pa
Age (years)
 ≤4453 (14.9)50 (20.5)39 (16.3)0.46
 45–54100 (28.0)65 (26.6)69 (28.9)
 55–64101 (28.3)64 (26.3)55 (23.0)
 ≥65103 (28.8)65 (26.6)76 (31.8)
 Mean (SD)57.2 (11.2)56.1 (11.7)56.7 (12.1)0.53
Sex
 Male175 (49.0)115 (47.1)126 (52.7)0.46
 Female182 (51.0)129 (52.9)113 (47.3)
Education
 Illiteracy23 (6.4)16 (6.6)24 (10.0)0.48
 Primary school88 (24.7)45 (18.4)48 (20.1)
 Middle School122 (34.2)94 (38.6)78 (32.6)
 High School74 (20.7)55 (22.5)53 (22.2)
 College and above50 (14.0)34 (13.9)36 (15.1)
Average annual household income 10 years ago (RMB)b
 <1,000106 (29.7)53 (21.7)48 (20.1)0.0006
 1,000–2,499181 (50.7)133 (54.5)106 (44.3)
 2,500–4,99947 (13.2)39 (16.0)58 (24.3)
 ≥5,00023 (6.4)19 (7.8)27 (11.3)
 Mean (SD)2,033.7 (2,590.5)2,289.5 (3,237.3)2,685.0 (3,330.4)0.04
BMI (kg/m2)
 <18.517 (4.9)6 (2.6)8 (3.5)0.82
 18.5–24.9215 (61.4)147 (62.8)137 (59.6)
 25–29.999 (28.3)70 (29.9)73 (31.7)
 ≥3019 (5.4)11 (4.7)12 (5.2)
 Mean (SD)23.9 (4.1)24.2 (3.6)24.3 (3.7)0.53
Pack-years of smoking
 Never-smokersc195 (54.6)135 (55.3)124 (51.8)0.89
 <3067 (18.8)46 (18.9)52 (21.8)
 ≥3095 (26.6)63 (25.8)63 (26.4)
IAPd
 None46 (13.6)31 (13.6)46 (20.9)0.11
 Low162 (47.9)119 (52.2)100 (45.5)
 High130 (38.5)78 (34.2)74 (33.6)
Alcohol drinkinge
 Never274 (76.8)188 (77.0)168 (70.3)0.14
 Ever83 (23.2)56 (23.0)71 (29.7)
Tea drinking
 Never212 (59.4)146 (59.8)134 (56.1)0.65
 Ever145 (40.6)98 (40.2)105 (43.9)
Supplement usef
 No294 (83.8)191 (78.9)197 (83.5)0.27
 Yes57 (16.2)51 (21.1)39 (16.5)
  • aFrom two-sided χ2 test for categorical variables and from ANOVA for continuous variables. P values in bold represent statistical significance.

  • bRMB = Renminbi, the Chinese currency.

  • cSmoked less than 100 cigarettes during lifetime.

  • dIAP exposure was calculated by summarizing participant's exposure to solid fuel for cooking and heating, ventilation in kitchen, opening of windows in winter, and secondhand smoking (an index of 0 = none, 1–2 = low, and 3–5 = high IAP).

  • eLifetime alcohol drinking status.

  • fSupplement use includes intake of one or more of the following: vitamin A, β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, selenium, zinc, or multivitamins.