Table 1.

PQs for cancer epidemiologic research in understudied populations

1.In observational epidemiologic research, what are the best analytic approaches to identify the major causes of a cancer health disparity when minority status is highly correlated with other risk factors?
2.How can standard evaluation tools be culturally and/or geographically modified to accurately collect CBPR accomplishments? For example, enrollment in clinical trials or genetic studies might be measured, but the degree to which a patient makes informed choices about enrolling in these studies also should be measured.
3.When conducting outreach to rural populations, how can investigators address issues at the personal (e.g., literacy) and ecologic (e.g., distances) levels to provide high-quality cancer control interventions?
4.How can we integrate state-of-the-art communication methods into research in rural areas?
5.What are the best models and practices that could be adapted and culturally tailored to deliver timely, quality health care to understudied populations?
6.How do individual, environmental, and contextual factors contribute to the Hispanic and other paradoxes (e.g., healthy immigrant effect), that is, when certain populations experience lower incidence and mortality of certain cancers despite low SES and other risk factors?
7.How can social determinants of health be addressed and intervened upon to reduce cancer disparities?
8.Is chronic stress, through its effects on the HPA axis, an independent risk factor for cancer and, if so, for which cancers? An alternative question would be: How is chronic stress or an individual's response to stress (coping mechanisms and biological response) involved in the etiology of cancer? How does this apply to understudied populations?
9.Why are there such striking cultural differences in incidence and mortality for certain cancers?
10.What are the multilevel and life-course factors associated with rapid changes in cancer risk among generations of APIs? Cancer sites/population of particular interest include: breast cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer in never-smoker females, and thyroid cancer.
11.What are the relevant cancer health disparity issues affecting populations in U.S. territories in the Caribbean and Pacific?