Table 4.

Association of raw garlic consumption with lung cancer

Cases (N = 392)Controls (N = 448)Model 1aModel 2b
aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
Raw garlic consumptionN (%)N (%)cOR (95% CI)
Never197 (50.3)160 (35.7)1.001.001.00
Any195 (49.7)288 (64.3)0.55 (0.42–0.73)0.59 (0.44–0.78)0.52 (0.38–0.72)
<2 times/week104 (26.5)140 (31.3)0.60 (0.43–0.84)0.61 (0.44–0.86)0.56 (0.39–0.81)
≥2 times/week91 (23.2)148 (33.0)0.50 (0.36–0.70)0.56 (0.40–0.80)0.50 (0.34–0.74)
Ptrend<0.00010.00060.0002

NOTE: Statistically significant OR and P values are presented in bold font.

Abbreviations: cOR, crude odds ratio; aOR, adjusted odds ratio.

  • aAdjusted for age (years), sex, and average household income 10 years ago (<1,000 = 1, 1,000—2,499 = 2, 2,500—4,999 = 3, ≥5,000 = 4).

  • bAdjusted for pack-years of smoking (continuous) and IAP (an index of 0 = none, 1–2 = low, and 3–5 = high IAP) in addition to the covariates in Model 1.