Table 2.

Characteristics of Latina study participants ages 42 to 74 who had been seen for primary care at one of four Sea Mar clinics within the previous 5 years, had not had a mammogram in the previous 2 years, and had EMR mammography information (n = 536)

Individual-level n (%)
Allocated to clinic-level interventionAllocated to clinic-level usual care
Clinic 1Clinic 2Clinic 3Clinic 4Overall
CharacteristicN = 125N = 85N = 151N = 175N = 536
Age
 42–49 years54 (43.2)45 (52.9)79 (52.3)90 (51.4)268 (50.0)
 50–64 years53 (42.4)27 (31.8)57 (37.7)69 (39.4)206 (38.4)
 65–74 years18 (14.4)13 (15.3)15 (9.9)16 (9.1)62 (11.6)
Language
 Spanish108 (87.1)81 (95.3)143 (94.7)159 (90.9)491 (91.8)
 English or other16 (12.9)4 (4.7)8 (5.3)16 (9.1)44 (8.2)
Birthplace
 Mexico86 (69.9)59 (69.4)128 (84.8)160 (90.9)432 (80.9)
 United States or other37 (30.1)26 (30.6)23 (15.2)16 (9.1)102 (19.1)
Education
 ≤4th grade34 (27.6)24 (28.9)35 (23.3)63 (36.0)156 (29.4)
 5th–8th grade32 (26.0)25 (30.1)54 (36.0)57 (32.6)168 (31.6)
 ≥9th grade–no high school diploma17 (13.8)9 (10.8)10 (6.7)22 (12.6)58 (10.9)
 High school diploma or GED22 (17.9)12 (14.5)24 (16.0)17 (9.7)75 (14.1)
 At least some college18 (14.6)13 (15.7)27 (18.0)16 (9.1)74 (13.9)
Marital status
 Married or living with partner66 (53.2)43 (51.2)105 (69.5)105 (60.0)319 (59.7)
 Unmarrieda58 (46.8)41 (48.8)46 (30.5)70 (40.0)215 (40.3)
Currently employed
 Yes66 (54.1)42 (49.4)66 (43.7)72 (41.1)246 (46.2)
Household incomeb
 <∃10,00031 (32.0)26 (38.8)47 (37.9)48 (32.0)152 (34.7)
 ∃10,000 to ∃30,00045 (46.4)27 (40.3)61 (49.2)83 (55.3)216 (49.3)
 >∃30,00021 (21.6)14 (20.9)16 (12.9)19 (12.7)70 (16.0)
Time in United States
 0–9 years23 (20.0)21 (26.3)22 (20.2)14 (8.6)80 (17.2)
 10–19 years51 (44.3)26 (32.5)44 (40.4)61 (37.7)182 (39.1)
 ≥20 years41 (35.7)33 (41.3)43 (39.4)87 (53.7)204 (43.8)
Health insurance
 Medicaid3 (2.5)4 (4.7)1 (0.7)9 (5.2)17 (3.2)
 Medicare5 (4.1)4 (4.7)8 (5.4)10 (5.8)27 (5.1)
 Uninsured88 (72.7)60 (70.6)119 (80.4)120 (69.8)387 (73.6)
 Private20 (16.5)13 (15.3)16 (10.8)17 (9.9)66 (12.5)
 Other government (e.g., Veterans Administration)6 (5.0)5 (5.9)5 (3.4)22 (12.8)38 (7.2)
Number of clinic visits in past year
 025 (20.3)15 (17.9)32 (21.2)43 (24.7)115 (21.6)
 126 (21.1)22 (26.2)33 (21.9)34 (19.5)115 (21.6)
 2–552 (42.3)29 (34.5)64 (42.4)71 (40.8)216 (40.6)
 ≥620 (16.3)18 (21.4)22 (14.6)26 (14.9)86 (16.2)
Breast cancer screening behaviors
 Clinic breast exam in past year25 (20.3)15 (17.6)30 (19.9)44 (25.1)114 (21.3)
 Previous mammogram, ever103 (83.1)58 (69.0)94 (63.1)139 (79.9)394 (74.2)
 Ever had mammogram in mobile mammography van14 (11.3)13 (15.3)10 (6.6)4 (2.3)41 (7.7)
Psychosocial characteristics
Function and Wellbeingc
 Physical component49.7 (10.1)50.6 (10.4)49.8 (10.2)49.9 (9.7)49.9 (10.0)
 Mental component51.0 (9.7)48.9 (9.7)49.0 (10.3)50.5 (10.1)49.9 (10.0)
Mental Health Statusd67.0 (21.6)62.1 (23.0)64.8 (21.8)67.1 (22.0)65.6 (22.0)
Social norms
 Mammogram recommended by provider72 (70.6)41 (70.7)63 (66.3)111 (79.9)287 (72.8)
 Mammogram recommended by family/friend52 (41.9)25 (29.4)55 (36.4)50 (28.6)182 (34.0)
Perceived susceptibility
 Highly likely to get breast cancer16 (14.3)12 (16.7)22 (16.8)30 (20.1)80 (17.2)
 Highly or moderately likely to get breast cancer52 (46.4)44 (61.1)76 (58.0)98 (65.8)270 (58.2)
 More likely than others to get breast cancer10 (8.8)10 (13.0)18 (13.2)11 (7.1)49 (10.2)
Cancer worry
 Often worry about getting cancer26 (21.0)14 (16.5)25 (16.6)24 (13.8)89 (16.7)
Interaction with health care system
 Doctor explained things in a way you could understand (% usually/always)74 (75.5)48 (69.6)80 (68.4)106 (80.9)308 (74.2)
 Doctor spent enough time with you (% usually/always)78 (79.6)57 (82.6)83 (69.7)107 (82.3)325 (78.1)
 Needed someone to help understand doctor (% Yes)39 (32.0)33 (38.8)80 (53.0)92 (52.6)244 (45.8)
 Needed health care, but could not get it (% Yes)27 (21.8)20 (23.5)24 (15.9)31 (17.7)102 (19.1)
Perceived discrimination
 Treated badly/unfairly because of race/ethnicity (% Often)12 (9.7)5 (6.0)6 (4.0)6 (3.4)29 (5.4)
 Would have received better care if different race/ethnicity (% Yes)26 (21.3)19 (22.9)38 (25.9)30 (17.6)113 (21.6)
  • aIncludes never married, widowed, divorced, or separated.

  • bA total of 97 responses were missing (27 in Clinic 1, 18 in Clinic 2, 27 in Clinic 3, and 25 in Clinic 4).

  • cBased on Short Form-12 (SF-12); using scores standardized to the study population with mean 50, standard deviation 10.

  • dBased on Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5); rescaled from a range of 5–25 to a range of 0–100.