Table 1.

Review of relationship between garlic consumption and lung cancer from published epidemiologic studies

ReferenceStudy designStudy populationStudy sampleGarlic (form)Garlic consumptionResultsComments
Jin et al. (2013)aCase–control study (population-based multicenter study)China (Jiangsu province)1,424 cases/4,543 controlsRaw garlicEstimated OR
  • Adjusted for age, gender, education, income, BMI, family history, smoking, alcohol drinking, and study area.

Never1.00
<2 times/week0.92 (0.79–1.08)
≥2 times/week0.56 (0.44–0.72)
Ptrend = <0.001
Lin et al. (2012)bCase–control studyChina -women (Fujian province)226 cases/269 controls matched on ageRaw garlicEstimated OR
  • Adjusted for age, cooking oil fumes, use of fume extractor and environmental tobacco smoke

No consumption1.00
1–2 times/week0.79 (0.49–1.28)
>2 times/week0.37 (0.16–0.84)
Satia et al. (2009)cProspective cohort studyUSA (Washington state665 lung cancer cases/76,460 non-lung cancer individualsGarlic supplement pills (past 10 years use)Estimated HR
  • Adjusted for age, gender, education, years smoked, pack-years, and pack-years squared.

  • Study examined association of lung cancer risk with various herbal and specialty supplement use during the past 10 years

Nonuser1.00
User1.09 (0.83–1.34)
Linseisen et al. (2007)dProspective cohort study10 European countries1,126 lung cancer cases/478,590 cohort members followedGarlic vegetableQuintiles of consumptionEstimated hazard risk
  • Adjusted for smoking status and duration, education, physical activity at work, intake of red meat, intake of processed meat, height, weight, nonfat energy intake, energy intake from fat, and ethanol intake at baseline.

  • Results from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study—updated from Miller et al (2003) publication.

No association found
Le Marchand et al. (2000)eCase–control study (population based)Hawaii, USA582 cases/582 controls matched on age, sex, and ethnicityGarlic vegetableQuartiles of consumptionEstimated OR
  • Adjusted for smoking status, duration of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, intakes of β-carotene and saturated fat.

  • Form of garlic (raw/cooked/other) for consumption was not specified

Quartile 11.00
Quartile 20.9 (0.6–1.4)
Quartile 30.8 (0.5–1.2)
Quartile 40.7 (0.4–1.1)
Ptrend = 0.12
Dorant et al. (1994)fCase–cohortNetherlands484 lung cancer cases/3,123 noncancer controlsGarlic supplementsEstimated rate ratio
  • Adjusted for age, gender, pack-years of current and past smoking, education, history of COPD, onion and leek consumption, vitamin C and β-carotene.

No sup use1.00
Garlic sup only1.78 (1.08–2.92)
Other sup only1.00
Garlic and other sup0.93 (0.46–1.86)

NOTE: Statistically significant estimates are presented in bold font.

Abbreviation: sup, supplements.