Table 5.

Association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer stratified by major risk factors

NeverAny<2 times/week≥2 times/week
VariableCa/CoCa/CoaORa (95% CI)Ca/CoaORa (95% CI)Ca/CoaORa (95% CI)Ptrenda
Age (years)
 <5588/6567/1560.36 (0.23–0.58)34/810.33 (0.19–0.58)33/750.40 (0.23–0.72)<0.001
 ≥55109/95128/1320.69 (0.45–1.08)70/590.82 (0.49–1.39)58/730.57 (0.33–0.99)0.049
Sex
 Males92/83103/1380.64 (0.40–1.03)54/610.68 (0.39–1.20)49/770.60 (0.34–1.08)0.071
 Females105/7792/1500.46 (0.30–0.72)50/790.49 (0.29–0.81)42/710.43 (0.25–0.75)0.001
Smoking status
 Never96/9982/1770.49 (0.32–0.76)49/860.59 (0.35–0.97)33/910.41 (0.24–0.71)<0.001
 Ever101/61113/110.56 (0.34–0.91)55/540.44 (0.20–0.96)58/570.63 (0.28–1.41)0.063
Indoor air pollution
 None18/2820/570.53 (0.21–1.36)11/200.73 (0.24–2.23)9/370.35 (0.11–1.10)0.075
 Low74/8866/1530.52 (0.33–0.83)39/800.58 (0.34–0.99)27/730.45 (0.25–0.82)0.006
 High88/4280/720.49 (0.29–0.84)40/380.44 (0.24–0.83)40/340.62 (0.32–1.19)0.077
Alcohol drinking
 No148/126146/2100.57 (0.40–0.82)83/1050.65 (0.42–0.99)63/1050.51 (0.32–0.81)0.003
 Yes49/3449/780.41 (0.21–0.82)21/350.34 (0.15–0.81)28/430.53 (0.23–1.21)0.078
Tea drinking
 Never121/91117/1630.55 (0.36–82)65/810.63 (0.39–1.00)52/820.46 (0.29–0.77)0.002
 Ever76/6939/590.46 (0.27–0.78)39/590.42 (0.22–0.80)39/660.50 (0.26–0.95)0.019
Supplement useb
 No171/123167/2210.49 (0.34–0.69)86/1050.51 (0.33–0.77)81/1160.46 (0.30–0.72)<0.001
 Yes23/3426/640.78 (0.33–1.87)17/340.87 (0.32–2.31)9/300.76 (0.24–2.35)0.622
Histopathology
 ACC53/16054/2880.55 (0.34–0.89)33/1400.67 (0.38–1.16)21/1480.43 (0.22–0.81)<0.001
 SqCC47/16042/2880.44 (0.25–0.77)17/1400.32 (0.15–0.67)25/1480.59 (0.30–1.17)0.050
 SmCC26/16031/2880.61 (0.33–1.13)17/1400.60 (0.29–1.24)14/1480.58 (0.26–1.28)0.136

Abbreviations: Ca/Co, cases/controls; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; ACC, adenocarcinoma, SqCC, squamous cell carcinoma; SmCC, small cell carcinoma.

  • aAdjusted for age (in years except for subgroups of age), sex (except for subgroups of sex), average annual household income 10 years ago (<1,000 = 1, 1,000–2,499 = 2, 2,500–4,999 = 3, ≥5,000 = 4), pack-years of smoking (continuous, except for subgroups of smoking), and IAP (an index of 0 = none, 1–2 = low, and 3–5 = high IAP except for subgroups of IAP).

  • bSupplement use includes intake of one or more of the following: vitamin A, β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, selenium, zinc, or multivitamins. Statistically significant OR estimates and P values are presented in bold font.