Table 1.

Participant characteristics

Cases (N = 1,905)Controls (N = 2,413)
N (%)N (%)P
Age, mean (SD)a60.69 (10.67)60.78 (10.43)0.79
Gendera
 Male1,006 (52.81)1,232 (51.06)
 Female899 (47.19)1,181 (48.94)0.25
Smoking status
 Never311 (16.33)593 (24.58)
 Former814 (42.73)988 (40.94)
 Current780 (40.94)832 (34.48)<0.001
 Pack-years in ever smokers, mean (SD)49.85 (31.00)42.32 (30.33)<0.001
BMI, kg/m2
 Underweight/normal841 (44.15)774 (32.08)
 Overweight688 (36.12)955 (39.58)
 Obese376 (19.74)684 (28.35)<0.001
Physical activityb
 Low618 (39.34)666 (31.28)
 Medium460 (29.28)649 (30.48)
 High493 (31.38)814 (38.23)<0.001
Years of educationb
 < 12792 (41.62)603 (25.03)
 12–15558 (29.32)825 (34.25)
 16+553 (29.06)981 (40.72)<0.001
Family history of cancerb
 No1,442 (76.97)2,016 (83.90)
 Yes456 (24.03)387 (16.10)0.001
Emphysemab
 No1,547 (82.11)2,250 (93.36)
 Yes337 (17.89)160 (6.64)<0.001
Pneumoniab
 No1,114 (58.94)1,717 (71.30)
 Yes776 (41.06)691 (28.70)<0.001
Hay feverb
 No1,591 (84.63)1,897 (78.68)
 Yes289 (15.37)514 (21.32)<0.001
Histologic subtypec
 Adenocarcinoma1,071 (57.06)NA
 SCC446 (23.76)NA
 Other360 (19.18)NA
Dietary factors
 GL, mean (SD)136.64 (62.86)136.77 (56.86)0.94
 GI, mean (SD)53.75 (5.14)52.74 (4.30)<0.001
 GI, available carbohydrate, mean (SD)58.33 (5.22)57.62 (4.31)<0.001
 Carbohydrate g/day, mean (SD)252.09 (110.59)258.03 (101.65)0.06
 Fiber g/day, mean (SD)19.19 (9.46)21.39 (10.05)<0.001
 Meat intake g/day, mean (SD)125.94 (81.08)127.09 (74.50)0.63
  • aMatching factors.

  • bMissing: years of education, N = 6; family history of cancer, N = 17; emphysema, N = 24; pneumonia, N = 20; hay fever, N = 27; unknown physical activity, N = 618.

  • cUnknown histologic subtype not included in the table (N = 28).