Table 3.

Associations between lung cancer risk and energy-adjusted quintilesa of dietary GL, GI, and GI (total available carbohydrate) intake, stratified by smoking status and years of education

Smoking statusYears of education
NeverEver<1212+
GLCases/controlsOR (95%CI)Cases/controlsOR (95%CI)Cases/controlsOR (95%CI)Cases/controlsOR (95%CI)
 Q139/1011 (ref)317/3821 (ref)128/1141 (ref)230/3691 (ref)
 Q252/1111.28 (0.77–2.15)293/3650.97 (0.77–1.21)133/1221.05 (0.71–1.55)220/3601.05 (0.82–1.34)
 Q362/1221.39 (0.84–2.30)329/3511.06 (0.84–1.33)174/1241.30 (0.89–1.91)235/3531.07 (0.83–1.37)
 Q470/1341.40 (0.85–2.29)280/3430.96 (0.76–1.22)159/1141.38 (0.94–2.03)194/3650.91 (0.71–1.18)
 Q585/1221.81 (1.11–2.93)343/3621.01 (0.80–1.26)198/1291.55 (1.07–2.24)232/3591.03 (0.81–1.32)
Ptrend0.020.940.0060.83
Pinteraction = 0.04Pinteraction = 0.04
GI
 Q149/1311 (ref)241/3561 (ref)85/931 (ref)214/3951 (ref)
 Q264/1201.40 (0.88–2.23)250/3521.01 (0.80–1.29)96/1031.04 (0.67–1.61)219/3711.13 (0.89–1.44)
 Q361/1271.34 (0.94–2.13)299/3621.10 (0.87–1.40)123/1251.11 (0.73–1.70)238/3671.19 (0.93–1.52)
 Q457/1171.41 (0.87–2.28)315/3591.09 (0.86–1.38)196/1241.77 (1.18–2.65)178/3580.93 (0.72–1.20)
 Q577/952.25 (1.42–3.59)457/3741.31 (1.04–1.65)292/1581.75 (1.19–2.58)262/3151.37 (1.07–1.75)
Ptrend0.0020.02<0.0010.11
Pinteraction = 0.37Pinteraction = 0.02
GI (available carbohydrate)
 Q147/1271 (ref)244/3531 (ref)95/941 (ref)206/3871 (ref)
 Q255/1241.21 (0.75–1.95)271/3451.16 (0.91–1.47)101/1160.99 (0.65–1.52)226/3551.25 (0.98–1.60)
 Q365/1191.56 (0.97–2.49)288/3721.01 (0.80–1.28)130/1161.14 (0.75–1.73)225/3831.09 (0.85–1.39)
 Q463/1111.68 (1.04–2.70)329/3631.20 (0.95–1.52)189/1201.71 (1.15–1.73)204/3551.14 (0.88–1.46)
 Q578/1092.06 (1.30–3.27)430/3701.36 (1.08–1.71)277/1571.77 (1.21–2.60)250/3261.33 (1.04–1.70)
Ptrend0.0010.01<0.0010.09
Pinteraction = 0.29Pinteraction = 0.01

NOTE: Fully adjusted model where appropriate. Missing, N = 55.

  • aQuintiles based on distribution in controls, by gender.