Table 2.

Associations between lung cancer risk and energy-adjusted quintilesa of dietary GL, GI, and GI (available carbohydrate) intake

Quintiles of daily GI/GL
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5Ptrend
Overall
 GL
  Cases/controls358/483332 (36.73)409/477353/479430/488
  Minimally adjusted modelb1 (ref)1.00 (0.82–1.22)1.18 (0.97–1.44)1.03 (0.84–1.26)1.20 (0.98–1.45)0.08
  Fully adjusted modelc1 (ref)1.04 (0.84–1.27)1.12 (0.90–1.38)1.04 (0.84–1.29)1.16 (0.94–1.42)0.19
 GI
  Cases/controls399/488315/474361/492374/482554/473
  Minimally adjusted modelb1 (ref)1.08 (0.88–1.33)1.14 (0.93–1.39)1.11 (0.91–1.37)1.59 (1.30–1.93)<0.001
  Fully adjusted modelc1 (ref)1.11 (0.90–1.38)1.16 (0.94–1.43)1.16 (0.93–1.42)1.49 (1.21–1.83)<0.001
 GI (available carbohydrate)
  Cases/controls301/481327/471355/499393/475527/483
  Minimally adjusted modelb1 (ref)1.08 (0.88–1.33)1.09 (0.89–1.34)1.20 (0.98–1.47)1.49 (1.23–1.81)<0.001
  Fully adjusted modelc1 (ref)1.18 (0.95–1.46)1.11 (0.89–1.37)1.30 (1.05–1.60)1.48 (1.20–1.81)0.001
By histologic subtype; adenocarcinoma
 GL
  Cases/controls188/483198/482201/477179/479236/488
  Minimally adjusted modelb1 (ref)1.05 (0.82–1.33)1.08 (0.85–1.38)0.97 (0.76–1.24)1.22 (0.97–1.24)0.2
  Fully adjusted modelc1 (ref)1.07 (0.83–1.38)1.01 (0.79–1.30)0.98 (0.76–1.27)1.16 (0.91–1.47)0.43
 GI
  Cases/controls179/488189/474177/492184/482273/473
  Minimally adjusted modelb1 (ref)1.09 (0.86–1.39)0.94 (0.74–1.20)0.98 (0.76–1.25)1.40 (1.11–1.77)0.02
  Fully adjusted modelc1 (ref)1.13 (0.8–1.46)0.98 (0.76–1.26)1.01 (0.78–1.30)1.30 (1.02–1.66)0.1
 GI (available carbohydrate)
  Cases/controls176/481196/471170/499204/475256/483
  Minimally adjusted modelb1 (ref)1.12 (0.88–1.42)0.91 (0.71–1.17)1.10 (0.87–1.17)1.32 (1.05–1.67)0.03
  Fully adjusted modelc1 (ref)1.23 (0.96–1.58)0.93 (0.72–1.21)1.15 (0.90–1.48)1.31 (1.02–1.67)0.08
By histologic subtype; SCC
 GL
  Cases/controls84/48369/48297/47775/47990/488
  Minimally adjusted modelb1 (ref)0.79 (0.55–1.13)1.26 (0.90–1.77)0.92 (0.64–1.31)1.05 (0.75–1.49)0.54
  Fully adjusted modelc1 (ref)0.82 (0.56–1.20)1.28 (0.89–1.83)0.97 (0.67–1.41)1.05 (0.73–1.49)0.65
 GI
  Cases/controls48/48855/47495/49287/482130/473
  Minimally adjusted modelb1 (ref)1.14 (0.74–1.73)1.79 (1.22–2.63)1.57 (1.06–2.32)2.08 (1.43–3.02)<0.001
  Fully adjusted modelc1 (ref)1.07 (0.69–1.65)1.68 (1.13–2.51)1.56 (1.04–2.32)1.92 (1.30–2.83)<0.001
 GI (available carbohydrate)
  Cases/controls49/48160/47191/49989/475126/483
  Minimally adjusted modelb1 (ref)1.13 (0.75–1.71)1.61 (1.09–2.36)1.63 (1.11–2.40)1.94 (1.34–2.81)<0.001
  Fully adjusted modelc1 (ref)1.14 (0.75–1.75)1.56 (1.05–2.32)1.73 (1.16–2.58)1.92 (1.31–2.82)<0.001

NOTE: Fully adjusted missing, N = 55; unknown physical activity, N = 618.

  • aQuintiles based on distribution in controls, by gender.

  • bMinimally adjusted model includes adjustment for age, education, gender, and smoking status; N = 6 missing education.

  • cSame as minimally adjusted, but also includes history of emphysema, pneumonia, hay fever, family history of lung cancer and physical activity, total energy intake, and BMI.