Table 1.

Individual-level and geographic characteristics of HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of at least one dose) among female adolescents aged 13 to 17 years and their families: National Immunization Survey–Teen, 2011–2012

CharacteristicsSurvey participants, n weighted %Weighted % (95% CI), vaccine initiation (yes)P
Total20,56553.5 (52.3–54.7)
Year
 201111,380 (50.1)53.2 (51.5–54.8)0.6077
 20129,185 (49.9)53.8 (52.0–55.7)
Age
 134,179 (20.3)44.5(41.8–47.1)<0.0001
 144,158 (19.4)47.2 (44.5–50.0)
 154,242 (20.8)55.1(52.4–57.8)
 164,152 (21.0)57.5 (54.6–60.4)
 173,834 (18.4)63.6 (60.9–66.3)
Insurance coverage
 No insurance1,246 (7.6)49.1(44.4–53.8)<0.0001
 Employer or union11,629 (46.3)49.2 (47.6–50.8)
 SCHIP or Medicaid5,021 (34.0)60.6(58.3–63.0)
 IHS, military, other2,669 (12.1)52.5(48.8–56.1)
Mother's education
 <12 y2,041 (14.4)65.9 (62.4–69.4)
 12 y3,912 (24.3)54.4(51.7–57.1)
 >12 y, noncollege graduate5,717 (27.5)50.3(48.0–52.7)
 College graduate8,895 (33.8)50.1(48.3–52.0)
Mother's marital status
 Married15,273 (64.8)51.6(50.2–53.0)0.0001
 Not married5,292 (35.1)57.0(54.7–59.3)
Mother's age, y
 ≤341,531 (10.7)60.9(56.7–65.2)0.0011
 35–448,394 (45.0)53.1(51.2–55.0)
 ≥4510,640 (44.3)52.0(50.3–53.8)
Poverty statusa
 Above poverty, >$75,0008,917 (31.9)52.3 (50.6–54.1)<0.0001
 Above poverty, ≤$75,0007,692 (39.0)48.6(46.6–50.6)
 Below poverty3,275 (24.7)63.6(60.8–66.5)
 Unknown poverty status681 (4.4)47.9(41.7–54.2)
Race/ethnicity of teen
 Hispanic2,842 (21.5)64.3(61.1–67.4)<0.0001
 Non-Hispanic White13,822 (55.3)49.2(47.8–50.6)
 Non-Hispanic Black2,072 (14.5)53.0(49.4–56.6)
 Non-Hispanic other and multiple race1,829 (8.8)54.8(50.3–59.3)
Facility types for teen's providers
 All public facilities3,042 (15.7)49.2(45.8–52.5)0.0046
 All hospital facilities1,703 (7.5)59.6(55.3–63.9)
 All private facilities9,693 (49.5)53.5 (51.7–55.3)
 Mixed and STD/school/teen clinics or other facilities4,945 (22)54.8(52.3–57.4)
 Unknown1,182 (5.3)54.0(48.8–59.2)
Provider recommendation to get HPV vaccine
 Yes12,737 (59.2)64.1(62.6–65.5)<0.0001
 No7,002 (36.4)36.8(34.7–39.0)
 Don't know670 (4.3)50.8(43.1–58.6)
ZIP code geographic measures
Racial composition (50%+ of that group)
 Hispanic1,384 (10.1)69.0(64.3–73.7)<0.0001
 Mixed1,884 (13.0)60.4(56.2–64.5)
 Non-Hispanic Black1,266 (6.3)54.0(49.2–58.8)
 Non-Hispanic White15,525 (69.5)49.9(48.6–51.2)
 Non-Hispanic other249 (1.1)75.7(60.4–91.1)
Poverty (% below poverty)a
 0%–4.99%3,117 (12.8)52.4 (49.6–55.1)<0.0001
 5%–9.9%5,342 (24.1)49.9(47.5–52.3)
 10%–19.9%7,416 (37.4)51.6(49.5–53.7)
 20+%4,425 (25.7)61.1(58.5–63.7)
Income (quartiles)
 $2,499–$37,7503,444 (18.6)58.1(55.2–61.0)0.0056
 $37,751–$47,2924,038 (21.9)54.2 (51.3–57.1)
 $47,293–$60,3564,857 (23.0)53.0(50.4–55.6)
 $60,357–$250,0007,961 (36.6)51.7(49.8–53.6)
Residence type (rural–urban)
 Isolated small rural town985 (2.4)44.6(38.3–50.9)0.0014
 Small rural town944 (3.0)47.7 (42.1–53.2)
 Large rural town1,685 (6.0)50.5(46.2–54.8)
 Urban focused16,694 (88.6)54.4(53.0–55.7)
Population density (quartiles)<0.0001
 1–20 per square mile1,480 (3.3)44.6(39.5–49.7)
 21–71 per square mile2,463 (9.4)47.7 (44.3–51.2)
 72–651 per square mile5,697 (27.7)51.9(49.6–54.2)
 >651–203,546 per square mile10,668 (59.5)56(54.3–57.7)

NOTE: Frequencies (n) were not weighted; percents weighted based on sampling weight.

Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HPV, human papillomavirus; IHS, Indian Health; SCHIP, State Children's Health Insurance Program.

  • aPoverty status was based on the U.S. Census poverty thresholds for 2011 and 2012, respectively.