Table 1.

Participant characteristics according to intake of vitamin B6 (mg) and choline (mg) at baseline, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, 1993–2013

Vitamin B6 intakeaCholine intakeaVitamin B6 intakeaCholine intakea
Mean age, y56.856.256.655.957.754.857.754.6
Body mass index (kg/m2), %
Education, %
 No formal education12.
 Primary school55.046.553.448.738.
 ≥Secondary school32.345.435.
Smoking status, %
 Never smokers39.244.744.637.588.293.990.391.6
 Former smokers21.122.222.320.
 Current smokers39.733.
Alcohol drinking, %
 <7 drinks/week20.523.
 ≥7 drinks/week5.015.94.417.
Weekly vitamin/minerals use (% Yes)
Weekly physical activity (% Yes)42.146.944.641.721.330.122.627.5
Diabetes (% Yes)
Mean calorie intake, kcal/day1,879.81,809.21,878.61,827.31,540.11,486.21,415.81,645.8
Mean nutrient intakeb
 Betaine, mg/day63.481.462.879.371.176.669.574.9
 Choline, mg/day188.7259.8160.4306.0199.7260.8174.3292.4
 Folate, μg/day119.2185.3127.8169.2129.6194.2138.0178.8
 Methionine, mg/day1,171.21,400.61,098.01,540.61,208.51,471.71,129.81,597.5
 Vitamin B2, mg/day0.
 Vitamin B6, mg/day0.
 Vitamin B12, μg/day1.

Abbreviations: Q1, 1st quartile; Q4, 4th quartile.

  • aNutrient intake was adjusted for daily total calorie intake by residual method. Quartiles of vitamin B6 and choline were based on the distribution among the entire cohort.

  • bNutrient intake was adjusted for daily total calorie intake by residual method.