Table 2.

Association between characteristics of female adolescents aged 13 to 17 years and HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of at least one dose): National Immunization Survey–Teen, 2011–2012

1 Dose of HPV vaccine
CharacteristicsUndadjustedb OR (95%CI)Model 1b,c, AOR (95% CI)Model 2b,c, AOR (95% CI)Model 3b,c, AOR (95% CI)
 141.14 (1.25–1.05)d1.09 (0.97–1.23)1.13 (1.05–1.25)d1.13 (1.02- 1.24)d
 151.56 (1.70–1.43)e1.57 (1.35–1.82)e1.63 (1.49–1.80)e1.60 (1.46–1.76)e
 161.71 (1.87–1.57)e1.82 (1.56–2.12)e1.88 (1.71–2.07)e1.86 (1.69–2.05)e
 172.22 (2.43–2.02)e2.36 (2.02–2.76)e2.40 (2.17–2.65)e2.38 (2.15–2.63)e
Insurance coverage
 No insurance1.05 (0.94–1.17)0.92 (0.81–1.05)0.92 (0.80–1.05)0.92 (0.81–1.05)
 Employer or unionRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
 SCHIP or Medicaid1.64 (1.54–1.75)e1.35 (1.24–1.48)e1.34 (1.22–1.47)e1.33 (1.22–1.46)e
 IHS, military, other1.14 (1.04–1.25)d1.09 (0.99–1.21)1.10 (1.00–1.22)1.08 (0.98–1.20)
Mother's education
 <12 y1.89 (2.07–1.72)e1.73 (1.53–1.95)e1.70 (1.50–1.92)e1.70 (1.51–1.93)e
 12 y1.22 (1.13–1.31)e1.19 (1.09–1.31)e1.19 (1.08–1.30)d1.18 (1.08–1.30)d
 >12 y, noncollege graduate1.05 (0.98–1.13)0.95 (0.87–1.03)0.96 (0.88–1.04)0.96 (0.89–1.05)
 College graduateRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Mother's marital status
 Not married1.29 (1.22–1.37)e1.09 (1.01–1.17)d1.07 (1.00–1.14)d1.07 (1.00–1.15)d
Mother's age, years
 ≤341.54 (1.40–1.70)e1.45 (1.29–1.62)e1.43 (1.27–1.60)d1.46 (1.30–1.64)e
 35 TO 441.09 (1.03–1.16)d1.09 (1.02–1.16)d1.09 (1.02–1.16)d1.09 (1.02–1.17)d
Poverty statusa
 Above poverty, >$75,000Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
 Above poverty, ≤$75,0000.88 (0.82–0.94)d0.73 (0.67–0.79)e0.73 (0.67–0.79)e0.73 (0.67–0.79)e
 Below poverty1.68 (1.55–1.81)e1.24 (1.10–1.39)d1.20 (1.07–1.35)d1.19 (1.06–1.34)d
 Unknown poverty status0.85 (0.99–0.74)0.84 (0.71–0.98)d0.83 (0.70–0.97)d0.82 (0.70–0.97)d
Race/ethnicity of teen
 Hispanic1.81 (1.67–1.96)e1.73 (1.57–1.90)e1.63 (1.48–1.80)e1.49 (1.34–1.65)e
 Non-Hispanic WhiteRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
 Non-Hispanic Black1.28 (1.17–1.39)e1.11 (1.00–1.22)d1.03 (0.93–1.14)0.99 (0.89–1.11)
 Non-Hispanic other and multiple race1.23 (1.11–1.37)e1.21 (1.08–1.35)d1.15 (1.03–1.29)d1.09 (0.97–1.23)
Provider recommendation to get HPV vaccine
 Yes3.03 (2.86–3.22)e3.73 (3.49–3.99)e3.72 (3.48–3.98)e3.75 (3.50–4.01)e
 Don't know1.74 (1.47–2.00)e1.92 (1.65–2.24)e1.81 (1.55–2.10)e1.77 (1.52–2.06)e
ZIP code geographic measures
Racial composition (50%+ of that group)
 Hispanic2.31 (2.07–2.59)e1.64 (1.43–1.87)e
 Mixed1.55 (1.41–1.70)e1.30 (1.17–1.44)e
 Non-Hispanic Black1.29 (1.15–1.45)e1.16 (1.00–1.34)d
 Non-Hispanic WhiteRef.Ref.
 Non-Hispanic other2.74 (2.0–3.78)e2.63 (1.87–3.71)e
Poverty (% below poverty)a
 5–9.9%0.90 (0.82–1.00)d0.92 (0.82–1.01)
 10–19.9%1.04 (0.94–1.14)0.98 (0.88–1.09)
 20+%1.49 (1.34–1.65)e1.18 (1.04–1.33)d
Population density
 1–20 per square mileRef.Ref.
 21–71 per square mile1.19 (0.99–1.43)1.29 1.06–1.58)d1.05 (0.98–1.14)
 72–651 per square mile1.37 (1.15–1.62)d1.37 (1.13–1.65)d1.11 (0.99–1.25)
 >651–203,546 per square mile1.52 (1.29–1,80)e1.49 (1.24–1.80)e1.44 (1.19–1.74)d
Residence type
 Isolated small rural townRef.
 Small rural town1.19 (0.93–1.52)
 Large rural town1.31 (1.06–1.63)d
 Urban focused1.44 (1.20–1.74)d

Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HPV, human papillomavirus; IHS, Indian Health; SCHIP, State Children's Health Insurance Program; Ref, reference.

  • aPoverty status was based on the U.S. Census poverty thresholds for 2011 and 2012, respectively.

  • bAll models were weighted based on sampling weight and also included state random effects. The sample size was n = 20,308.

  • cMultivariable models 1–3 include all of the variables without dashes (—) and also include the variables ‘facility type where vaccines were administered and survey year’.

  • dP < 0.05.

  • eP < 0.0001.