Table 2.

Associations between potential risk factors and pancreatic cancer risk overall, and stratified by sex, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, 1993–2013

Total subjectsMenWomen
CharacteristicsCases, NHR (95% CI)aCases, NHR (95% CI)aCases, NHR (95% CI)a
Age2711.09 (1.08–1.11)1381.10 (1.07–1.12)1331.09 (1.06–1.12)
Female vs. male2710.70 (0.55–0.89)138133
Body mass index, kg/m2
 <18.5221.44 (0.91–2.27)131.53 (0.84–2.79)91.33 (0.66–2.69)
 18.5–21.4621.18 (0.86–1.60)371.27 (0.84–1.92)251.06 (0.66–1.70)
 21.5–24.41141.00 (ref)571.00 (ref)571.00 (ref)
 24.5–27.4551.33 (0.97–1.84)261.20 (0.75–1.90)291.48 (0.95–2.32)
 ≥27.5180.93 (0.56–1.52)50.58 (0.23–1.45)131.21 (0.66–2.21)
Education
 No formal education821.00 (ref)141.00 (ref)681.00 (ref)
 Primary school1211.07 (0.78–1.45)751.30 (0.73–2.32)461.00 (0.68–1.49)
 ≥Secondary school681.16 (0.81–1.68)491.45 (0.79–2.67)191.02 (0.60–1.76)
Smoking
 Never smokers1661.00 (ref)541.00 (ref)1121.00 (ref)
 Former smokers340.96 (0.64–1.45)310.92 (0.59–1.44)30.76 (0.24–2.41)
 Current smokers711.40 (1.02–1.92)531.24 (0.84–1.81)181.93 (1.17–3.20)
Alcohol drinking
 Nondrinkers2221.00 (ref)1051.00 (ref)1171.00 (ref)
 <7 drinks/week391.00 (0.71–1.42)240.77 (0.49–1.20)151.68 (0.98–2.89)b
 ≥7 drinks/week100.80 (0.42–1.52)90.79 (0.40–1.56)1
Diabetes
 No2411.00 (ref)1221.00 (ref)1191.00 (ref)
 Yes301.30 (0.88–1.90)161.49 (0.88–2.52)141.19 (0.64–1.95)
Weekly vitamin/mineral supplement use
 No2561.00 (ref)1321.00 (ref)1241.00 (ref)
 Yes150.89 (0.53–1.51)60.80 (0.35–1.82)90.99 (0.50–1.94)
  • aHR and 95% CI were adjusted for age (years), sex, father's dialect group (Cantonese, Hokkien), and year of interview (1993–1995, 1996–1998).

  • bHR and 95% CI were calculated for drinkers vs. nondrinkers. Only one case was in women ≥7 drinks/week, and thus <7 drinks/week was combined with ≥7 drinks/week.