Table 3.

Multivariate analysis of one-carbon metabolism dietary factors and pancreatic cancer incidence by sex, Singapore Chinese Health Study 1993–2013

AllMenWomen
NutrientsMedian intakeaCases, NHR (95% CI)bCases, NHR (95% CI)bCases, NHR (95% CI)b
Betaine, mg/day
 Q141.56681.00 (ref)431.00 (ref)251.00 (ref)
 Q259.43751.12 (0.81–1.57)401.21 (0.78–1.87)351.10 (0.65–1.83)
 Q370.84711.03 (0.73–1.44)290.82 (0.51–1.33)421.30 (0.79–2.14)
 Q4105.62570.80 (0.56–1.14)260.66 (0.40–1.08)311.05 (0.62–1.79)
 P-trend0.190.0510.71
Choline, mg/day
 Q1176.30971.00 (ref)621.00 (ref)351.00 (ref)
 Q2217.25540.57 (0.40–0.80)220.48 (0.29–0.78)320.70 (0.43–1.13)
 Q3245.27640.72 (0.52–1.00)290.71 (0.45–1.11)350.79 (0.49–1.27)
 Q4286.79560.67 (0.48–0.93)250.55 (0.34–0.88)310.86 (0.53–1.41)
 P-trend0.040.020.69
Folate, μg/day
 Q1108.24741.00 (ref)451.00 (ref)291.00 (ref)
 Q2137.56660.94 (0.67–1.32)331.00 (0.63–1.58)330.92 (0.55–1.52)
 Q3162.90741.12 (0.81–1.56)300.94 (0.58–1.50)441.35 (0.83–2.17)
 Q4207.21570.89 (0.63–1.28)300.90 (0.56–1.44)270.94 (0.54–1.61)
 P-trend0.820.620.73
Methionine, mg/day
 Q11,073.17721.00 (ref)471.00 (ref)351.00 (ref)
 Q21,268.95881.26 (0.92–1.73)481.35 (0.90–2.04)401.17 (0.71–1.92)
 Q31,414.90580.88 (0.62–1.25)200.62 (0.37–1.05)381.14 (0.69–1.89)
 Q41,625.25530.82 (0.57–1.17)230.67 (0.41–1.10)301.02 (0.60–1.72)
 P-trend0.090.020.98
Vitamin B2, mg/day
 Q10.71711.00 (ref)481.00 (ref)231.00 (ref)
 Q20.86701.03 (0.74–1.44)340.96 (0.61–1.51)361.20 (0.71–2.04)
 Q30.98610.92 (0.65–1.30)310.86 (0.54–1.36)301.08 (0.63–1.87)
 Q41.20691.01 (0.72–1.42)250.68 (0.42–1.11)441.55 (0.93–2.59)
 P-trend0.880.120.13
Vitamin B6, mg/day
 Q10.88951.00 (ref)621.00 (ref)331.00 (ref)
 Q21.02640.71 (0.51–0.98)220.48 (0.29–0.80)421.03 (0.64–1.64)
 Q31.13680.80 (0.58–1.11)310.73 (0.47–1.14)370.98 (0.60–1.58)
 Q41.33440.52 (0.36–0.74)230.45 (0.28–0.74)210.66 (0.38–1.15)
 P-trend0.0010.0040.16
Vitamin B12, μg/day
 Q11.43741.00 (ref)541.00 (ref)201.00 (ref)
 Q22.05690.97 (0.69–1.35)290.71 (0.45–1.12)401.57 (0.91–2.70)
 Q32.52680.99 (0.70–1.38)340.91 (0.59–1.41)341.31 (0.75–2.28)
 Q43.26600.88 (0.62–1.24)210.54 (0.33–0.90)391.60 (0.93–2.74)
 P-trend0.510.0470.21
  • aNutrient intake levels were adjusted for daily total calorie intake using residual method.

  • bAdjusted for age (continuous, year), sex (male, female), year of interview (1993–1995, 1996–1998), dialect group (Cantonese, Hokkien), education (no formal education, primary school, and secondary school or higher), BMI (<18.5, 18.5–21.4, 21.5–24.4, 24.5–27.4, ≥27.5 kg/m2), smoking status (never, former, current), diabetes (no, yes), alcohol drinking (no, yes), and weekly vitamin use (no, yes). Stratified analyses were not adjusted by sex. The cutoff values for one-carbon metabolism–related nutrients were the same for men and women.