Table 1.

Characteristics of NHANES participants by tobacco use status: United States 1999 to 2012

Nontobacco usersExclusive smokeless tobacco usersExclusive cigarette smokersDual cigarette and smokeless tobacco users
CharacteristicsN(N = 16,313)(N = 488)(N = 6,791)(N = 92)
Age (years)23,68445.9 (45.3–46.5)a 44.2 (42.7–45.7)42.0 (41.5–42.4)33.1 (30.3–35.8)
Sex
 Male10,57140.1% (39.2%–41.0%)94.7% (92.1%–97.2%)53.9% (52.5%–55.4%)99.4% (98.6%–100.0%)
 Female13,11359.9% (59.0%–60.8%)5.3% (2.8%–7.9%)46.1% (44.6%–47.5%)0.6% (0.0%–1.4%)
Race/ethnicity
 Mexican-American4,5839.0% (7.6%–10.3%)2.5% (1.3%–3.7%)6.8% (5.6%–8.0%)2.1% (0.0%–4.2%)
 Other Hispanic1,7655.9% (4.7%–7.2%)0.7% (0.0%–1.5%)4.9% (3.4%–6.4%)1.4% (0.0%–4.3%)
 Non-Hispanic white10,78066.8% (64.2%–69.4%)88.7% (85.3%–92.1%)70.8% (67.9%–73.7%)94.2% (90.1%–98.2%)
 Non-Hispanic black5,09511.7% (10.3%–13.2%)5.7% (3.5%–7.8%)12.3% (10.7%–13.9%)1.1% (0.0%–2.4%)
 Other1,4616.6% (5.7%–7.4%)2.5% (0.9%–4.1%)5.1% (4.2%–6.0%)1.2% (0.0%–3.3%)
Education
 <High school graduate6,93615.4% (14.4%–16.4%)20.3% (15.9%–24.6%)27.7% (26.1%–29.3%)15.1% (7.6%–22.6%)
 High school graduate5,58721.1% (20.1%–22.2%)34.2% (28.8%–39.7%)31.5% (30.0%–32.9%)42.7% (30.0%–55.4%)
 >High school graduate11,13463.5% (62.0%–65.0%)45.5% (40.0%–51.0%)40.9% (39.0%–42.8%)42.3% (30.6%–54.0%)
BMI, kg/m2 23,31128.7 (28.5–28.8)30.0 (29.3–30.8)27.5 (27.3–27.6)26.7 (25.5–27.9)
Past 5-day cigarette/smokeless tobacco use
 Number of days smoked cigarettes4.4 (4.4–4.5)3.2 (2.7–3.7)
 Number of cigarettes smoked per day on days smoking cigarettes14.8 (14.4–15.3)11.9 (8.6–15.2)
 Number of days used chewing tobacco4.2 (4.1–4.4)3.7 (3.3–4.2)
 Number of days used snuff4.3 (4.1–4.5)3.5 (3.0–4.0)

NOTE: Nontobacco users reported not having smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lives and not having used cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or snuff in the past 5 days. Smokeless tobacco users reported having used chewing tobacco or snuff in the past 5 days and currently not smoking cigarettes at all. Cigarette smokers reported having smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lives and currently smoking every day or some days and not having used chewing tobacco or snuff in the past 5 days. Dual cigarette and smokeless tobacco users reported having smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lives, currently smoking every day or some days, and having used chewing tobacco or snuff in the past 5 days. Survey participants were excluded from each group if they reported having used cigars, pipes, or nicotine gum, patches, or other nicotine products in the past 5 days.

  • a95% CIs for mean and percentages are shown in parentheses.