Table 1.

Description of cases and matched controls, by anatomical site

CharacteristicsColon cancerRectal cancer
CasesMatched controlsCasesMatched controls
Men, n 297297213213
Women, n 362362183183
Total659659396396
Age, years, mean (SD)
 At recruitment58.8 (7.2)58.8 (7.2)58.1 (6.8)57.7 (6.6)
 At blood collection59.0 (7.2)58.9 (7.2)58.1 (6.8)57.8 (6.5)
BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD)26.8 (4.5)26.3 (3.9)26.6 (4.0)26.4 (3.8)
Waist circumference, cm, mean (SD)90.4 (13.3)88.0 (12.1)90.4 (12.9)89.8 (12.9)
Smoking status/duration/intensity, n (%)
 Never smokers276 (41.9)291 (44.2)155 (39.1)156 (39.4)
 Ex-smokers, duration of smoking <10 years40 (6.1)43 (6.5)21 (5.3)29 (7.3)
 Ex-smokers, duration of smoking ≥10 years160 (24.3)165 (25.0)103 (26.0)93 (23.5)
 Ex-smokers, missing duration of smoking15 (2.3)12 (1.8)4 (1.0)8 (2.0)
 Smokers, <15 cigarettes a day110 (16.7)96 (14.6)79 (19.9)65 (16.4)
 Smokers, ≥15 to <25 cigarettes a day41 (6.2)39 (5.9)24 (6.1)34 (8.6)
 Smokers, ≥25 cigarettes a day9 (1.4)6 (0.9)7 (1.8)5 (1.3)
 Missing smoking status8 (1.2)7 (1.1)3 (0.8)6 (1.5)
Physical activity, n (%)
 Inactive104 (15.8)76 (11.5)57 (14.4)58 (14.6)
 Moderately inactive201 (30.5)206 (31.3)115 (29.0)99 (25.0)
 Moderately active288 (43.7)293 (44.5)176 (44.4)169 (42.7)
 Active62 (9.4)78 (11.8)48 (12.1)61 (15.4)
 Missing/unspecified4 (0.6)6 (0.9)09 (2.3)
Education level, n (%)
 None/primary256 (38.8)288 (43.7)147 (37.1)163 (41.2)
 Technical/professional151 (22.9)161 (24.4)108 (27.3)110 (27.8)
 Secondary113 (17.1)83 (12.6)54 (13.6)41 (10.3)
 University or higher117 (17.7)109 (16.5)75 (18.9)75 (18.9)
 Missing/unspecified22 (3.3)18 (2.7)12 (3.0)7 (1.8)
Diabetes status, %
 Self-reported diabetes at recruitment, n (%)29 (5.3)29 (5.3)24 (6.9)16 (4.6)
 Subjects HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, n (%)54 (10.0)25 (6.1)36 (11.1)22 (8.6)
 Self-reported diabetes or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, n (%)65 (10.2)42 (6.9)45 (11.7)30 (8.0)
Dietary variables [g/day, median (IQR)]
 Total energy, kcal/day2,070 (1,690–2,490)2,060 (1,730–2,450)2,150 (1,730–2,560)2,110 (1,720–2,560)
 Total fat intake77 (60–96)77 (61–96)79 (60–104)80 (63–103)
 Fiber intake22 (17–27)23 (18–27)22 (18–28)23 (18–28)
 Fruit and vegetable intake369 (246–524)418 (263–566)356 (244–504)364 (250–524)
 Red meat intake48 (25–77)48 (26–76)56 (34–84)54 (31–82)
 Processed meat intake25 (13–41)23 (12–42)27 (14–47)26 (13–47)
 Alcohol intake9 (1–23)8 (1–21)12 (2–31)11 (2–25)
Hs-CRP, mg/L, median (IQR)3.1 (1.3–5.7)2.2 (1.1–4.7)2.3 (1.0–4.4)2.3 (1.0–4.2)
Cholesterol, mmol/L, median (IQR)6.3 (5.5–7.1)6.4 (5.6–7.2)6.4 (5.6–7.1)6.5 (5.8–7.3)
HDL, mmol/L, median (IQR)1.4 (1.1–1.7)1.4 (1.2–1.8)1.4 (1.2–1.7)1.4 (1.2–1.7)
LDL, mmol/L, median (IQR)4.2 (3.5–4.8)4.2 (3.5–4.9)4.2 (3.4–4.8)4.3 (3.6–5.0)
Glycer-AGEs, U/mL, median (IQR)6.8 (5.3–8.3)7.0 (5.5–8.7)7.2 (5.8–9.1)7.1 (5.4–8.6)

NOTE: Cases and controls were matched on age (within 2.5 years), gender, administrative center, hormone therapy and menopausal status (among women), fasting status, and date of blood collection (within 45 days).

Abbreviations: IQR, interquartile range; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.