Table 2.

Summary of study reporting quality

ItemDid the study:All studies (n = 30)Lower reporting studies (n = 15)Higher reporting studies (n = 14)Pa =
1Identify the article as a study of diagnostic accuracy?31%7%57%0.005**
2State the research aims?38%20%57%0.046*
3Describe population selection criteria?83%73%93%0.186
4Describe patient selection criteria?83%80%86%0.535
5State pattern of recruitment (e.g., consecutive)?14%0%29%0.042*
6State if data collected before or after testing?55%33%79%0.018*
7State rationale of the reference standard?62%47%79%0.082
8Describe the technical details of the index test?97%93%100%0.517
9Define units and/or cut-offs for the index test and reference standard?62%33%93%0.001**
10Describe who carried out testing?34%20%50%0.095
11Describe whether those carrying out testing were blinded?93%93%93%0.741
12Describe methods of determining test accuracy and statistical uncertainty?55%33%79%0.018*
13Describe methods for calculating test reproducibility, if done?45%0%93%<0.001***
14State when the study was performed?38%33%43%0.442
15Describe basic demographics of participants?55%33%79%0.018*
16State the number of eligible patients not included, and the reasons why?7%7%7%0.741
17Give the time interval between the index test and reference standard?14%7%21%0.272
18Describe the severity of the disease in participants with defined criteria?59%40%79%0.041*
19Provide cross-tabulation, etc. of patient assignment by tests?21%7%36%0.070
20Describe adverse events during testing?0%0%0%1.000
21Provide estimates of diagnostic accuracy and statistical uncertainty?34%7%64%0.002**
22Describe how unclassified patients and outliers were analyzed?10%7%14%0.473
23Describe estimates of accuracy between subgroups or centers, if done?21%7%83%0.067
24Provide estimates of test reproducibility, if done?10%0%50%0.121
25Discuss the clinical applicability of the study findings?90%87%93%0.527
  • aFisher's exact test.

    *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001. Abridged questions given.