Table 3.

Cox proportional hazard model for overall survival of distant stage patients

Whole groupSubgroup with carcinoid syndromeSubgroup without carcinoid syndrome
HR95% HR confidence limitsPHR95% HR confidence limitsPHR95% HR confidence limitsP
Treatment
 Without octreotide LAR111
 With octreotide LAR0.6820.5540.8400.00030.6470.4860.8610.00280.5530.3810.8030.0019
Carcinoid syndrome
 No1
 Yes0.9520.8101.1190.5512
Age, y
 65–69111
 70–741.2401.0081.5240.04131.3810.9601.9870.08221.2100.9351.5650.1473
 75–791.4921.2031.8520.00031.3150.8931.9350.16511.5371.1812.0010.0014
 ≥801.9411.5722.397<0.00012.2321.5033.314<0.00011.9581.5132.533<0.0001
Gender
 Male111
 Female0.8380.7270.9650.01430.8490.6551.1000.21530.8640.7251.0300.1029
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white111
 Non-Hispanic black0.7310.5680.9410.01510.7850.4851.2720.32590.7040.5180.9580.0257
 Hispanic or Others0.8190.6041.1120.20040.8480.4761.5110.57570.8560.5891.2440.4143
Region
 Northeast111
 West1.0640.8361.3540.61180.9920.6421.5320.97061.0660.7881.4420.6788
 Midwest1.2240.9611.5580.10121.9861.2633.1220.00301.0370.7701.3960.8129
 South0.8990.7331.1020.30440.9570.6631.3810.81320.8580.6641.1090.2432
Urban/rural status
 Metropolitan111
 Nonmetropolitan0.7590.5930.9710.02840.7130.4461.1420.15910.8230.6091.1130.2063
Census tract median income in quartile
 First quartile0.9250.6501.3150.66250.8270.4461.5320.54580.8850.5631.3900.5960
 Second quartile0.7410.5481.0010.05100.7700.4571.2960.32470.7350.5081.0620.1008
 Third quartile0.8080.6401.0220.07520.8550.5471.3380.49370.8520.6451.1260.2611
 Fourth quartile111
Census tract % below poverty level in quartile
 First quartile111
 Second quartile1.0380.8361.2890.73340.9580.6441.4250.83141.0640.8161.3860.6482
 Third quartile1.0610.8101.3900.66580.9090.5731.4430.68501.1570.8231.6270.4011
 Fourth quartile1.2090.8711.6800.25680.9290.5331.6200.79521.3890.9022.1380.1356
Census tract % college in quartile
 First quartile1.3191.0071.7260.04401.5930.9712.6130.06531.2470.8941.7380.1930
 Second quartile1.4501.1301.8610.00351.6931.0612.7010.02721.3601.0041.8420.0473
 Third quartile1.2731.0271.5790.02751.2450.8261.8760.29441.2020.9311.5520.1574
 Fourth quartile111
Comorbidity score
 0111
 11.1920.9861.4420.06981.3930.9911.9570.05601.1080.8721.4070.4036
 ≥21.5571.2531.935<0.00011.7901.1942.6840.00491.4811.1391.9250.0034
1.3941.0601.8320.01731.4110.8522.3360.18141.3980.9941.9660.0545
Tumor size
 <1 cm111
 1–2 cm0.9590.5871.5660.86730.7020.2591.9040.48641.0860.6091.9360.7802
 >2 cm1.0970.6941.7340.69191.1300.4432.8820.79841.1230.6561.9200.6729
 Unknown1.2690.8002.0140.31191.2490.4873.1990.64351.3280.7722.2830.3054
Histology grade
 Grade 1111
 Grade 21.2151.0061.4680.04310.9960.6561.5110.98391.3101.0511.6320.0161
 Unspecified (either grade 1 or 2)1.6271.2242.1630.00081.5550.7133.3920.26761.6661.2152.2850.0015
Primary site
 Larynx, bronchus, lung, trachea, and other respiratory organs111
 Cecum and appendix1.6261.2042.1950.00151.8571.0133.4050.04541.6891.1752.4280.0046
 Colon2.1441.6392.805<0.00012.1611.2033.8800.00992.0491.4942.811<0.0001
 Small intestine1.0950.8781.3670.42031.1850.7371.9040.48381.1450.8801.4890.3123
 Pancreas1.4131.1111.7960.00481.1230.6861.8380.64361.7451.3012.3420.0002
 Others1.3141.0211.6910.03391.4370.8542.4180.17241.4081.0301.9260.0322
Resection of primary tumor
 No111
 Yes0.5460.4580.651<0.00010.5510.3910.7770.00070.5150.4150.639<0.0001
Resection of liver metastases
 No111
 Yes0.6440.4420.9380.02190.6750.3881.1760.16540.5780.3380.9880.0449
Chemotherapy
 No111
 Yes1.1170.9361.3330.22101.4871.1052.0000.00880.9600.7551.2200.7388
Radiotherapy
 No111
 Yes1.1840.9501.4750.13371.6491.0772.5240.02141.1030.8401.4480.4823
Year of diagnosis
 1999–2003111
 2004–20070.8710.7541.0070.06160.8350.6291.1090.21350.8870.7441.0590.1845