Table 1.

Participants' clinical characteristics and tobacco use measurement (n = 131 studies)

Clinical variablePercent (n) of studiesaM, SD across studies
Cancer diagnosis
 Lung only48.1 (63)
 Head/neck only42.7 (56)
 Mixed9.2 (12)
Cancer stage
 Early or local only13.7 (18)
 Regional only1.5 (2)
 Late or advanced only7.6 (10)
 Mixed65.6 (86)
 Missing or unclear11.5 (15)
Treatment phaseb
 Pretreatment only23.7 (31)
 In treatment only19.1 (25)
 Posttreatment only21.4 (28)
 Mixed29.0 (38)
 Missing or unclear6.9 (9)
Treatment typec
 Surgery only11.5 (15)
 Radiation only9.9 (13)
 Chemotherapy only2.3 (3)
 Mixed61.1 (80)
 Missing or unclear15.3 (20)
Months since cancer diagnosis, meand21.4, 19.0
Tobacco use variablePercent (n) of studiesa
Cigarette smoking
 1 y12.2 (16)
 30 days13.0 (17)
 7 days9.9 (13)
 24 hours2.3 (3)
 Missing or uncleare61.1 (80)
Other tobacco use
 1 y0.0 (0)
 30 days16.7 (1)
 7 days0.0 (0)
 24 hours16.7 (1)
 Missing or uncleare66.7 (4)
  • aColumn percentages may not add up to 100.0 due to rounding.

  • bThis variable refers to what was occurring at the time of tobacco use assessment. In the case of longitudinal studies, this variable corresponds to baseline.

  • cThis variable includes treatment that may have occurred after the time of tobacco use assessment.

  • dThis variable was missing or unclear in 89.3% (n = 117) of studies, although some articles reported a median value and others reported time since treatment initiation or completion.

  • eThis includes studies that reported the point prevalence of “current” tobacco users, without explicit mention of how “current” was operationalized.