Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study population and figures of cancer mortality for specific cancer sites stratified by smoking status

Smoking statusNeverFormerLightaHeavybTotal
Observations, n16,7866,4267,3205,17135,703
Observations, %
Deaths from all causes, n3,4761,4381,3671,1027,383
% Deaths from all causesc20.722.418.721.3100
Mean (SD) follow-up in years19.0 (7.3)18.0 (7.0)19.8 (7.6)18.8 (7.3)18.9 (7.3)
Mean (SD) age in years47.1 (16.7)48.7 (14.8)42.6 (14.7)41.4 (12.2)45.6 (15.6)
Mean (SD) BMI in kg/m224.2 (4.0)25.0 (3.9)23.9 (3.8)24.3 (3.8)24.3 (3.9)
BMI categories, %
 BMI < 2563.453.565.261.261.6
 25 ≤ BMI < 3028.436.828.631.930.5
 BMI ≥ 308.
Marital status, %
Frequency of PA, %
 Several times per week22.525.322.617.822.4
 Once per week22.121.422.917.821.5
 Less than once per week48.946.848.659.650.0
Other covariates
 Alcohol (% yes)56.974.671.076.565.8
 Healthy dietd (% yes)73.067.763.048.266.6
 Mean (SD) years of education11.5 (3.2)12.2 (3.2)12.0 (3.2)11.8 (3.1)11.8 (3.2)
 Nationality (% Swiss)85.183.781.679.083.2
Cancer mortality
All cancer sitesn9854944674332,379
Lung cancern767993178426
Colorectal cancern125614420250
UADT cancern27243143125
Blood cancern120534528246
Pancreatic cancern56282617127
Bladder cancern3615161885
Liver cancern2422161981
Stomach cancern371981074
Breast cancergn141202419204
Cancer of female genitalsgn8615247132
Prostate cancerhn49575212170
Remaining cancer casesn2081028963462

NOTE: Sex-specific results can be found in Supplementary Table S2.

  • aCurrent light smokers: smoking less than 20 cigarette equivalents a day. One pipe or cigarillo correspondents to two and one cigar to four cigarette equivalents.

  • bCurrent heavy smokers: smoking at least 20 cigarette equivalents a day.

  • cPercent of all observations in this smoking category.

  • dDefined as follows: MONICA, NRP 1A, and SOMIPOPS: regularly eating three main meals per day; SHS 92/93: eating fruits and vegetables at least once per day.

  • ePercent of all deaths in this smoking category.

  • fPercent of all cancer deaths in this smoking category.

  • gOnly women.

  • hOnly men.