Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study population and figures of cancer mortality for specific cancer sites stratified by smoking status

Smoking statusNeverFormerLightaHeavybTotal
Observations, n16,7866,4267,3205,17135,703
Observations, %47.018.020.514.5100
Deaths from all causes, n3,4761,4381,3671,1027,383
% Deaths from all causesc20.722.418.721.3100
Person-years319,345115,414144,58996,961676,309
Mean (SD) follow-up in years19.0 (7.3)18.0 (7.0)19.8 (7.6)18.8 (7.3)18.9 (7.3)
Mean (SD) age in years47.1 (16.7)48.7 (14.8)42.6 (14.7)41.4 (12.2)45.6 (15.6)
Mean (SD) BMI in kg/m224.2 (4.0)25.0 (3.9)23.9 (3.8)24.3 (3.8)24.3 (3.9)
BMI categories, %
 BMI < 2563.453.565.261.261.6
 25 ≤ BMI < 3028.436.828.631.930.5
 BMI ≥ 308.29.76.27.07.9
Marital status, %
 Single21.512.424.122.820.6
 Married64.575.964.963.866.5
 Widowed9.15.33.92.56.4
 Divorced4.86.47.111.06.5
Frequency of PA, %
 Daily6.56.55.94.86.1
 Several times per week22.525.322.617.822.4
 Once per week22.121.422.917.821.5
 Less than once per week48.946.848.659.650.0
Other covariates
 Alcohol (% yes)56.974.671.076.565.8
 Healthy dietd (% yes)73.067.763.048.266.6
 Mean (SD) years of education11.5 (3.2)12.2 (3.2)12.0 (3.2)11.8 (3.1)11.8 (3.2)
 Nationality (% Swiss)85.183.781.679.083.2
Cancer mortality
All cancer sitesn9854944674332,379
%e28.334.434.239.332.2
Lung cancern767993178426
%f7.716.019.941.117.9
Colorectal cancern125614420250
%f12.712.39.44.610.5
UADT cancern27243143125
%f2.74.96.69.95.3
Blood cancern120534528246
%f12.210.79.66.510.3
Pancreatic cancern56282617127
%f5.75.75.63.95.3
Bladder cancern3615161885
%f3.73.03.44.23.6
Liver cancern2422161981
%f2.44.53.44.43.4
Stomach cancern371981074
%f3.83.91.72.33.1
Breast cancergn141202419204
%f14.34.15.14.48.6
Cancer of female genitalsgn8615247132
%f8.73.05.11.65.6
Prostate cancerhn49575212170
%f5.011.511.12.87.2
Remaining cancer casesn2081028963462
%f21.120.619.114.619.4

NOTE: Sex-specific results can be found in Supplementary Table S2.

  • aCurrent light smokers: smoking less than 20 cigarette equivalents a day. One pipe or cigarillo correspondents to two and one cigar to four cigarette equivalents.

  • bCurrent heavy smokers: smoking at least 20 cigarette equivalents a day.

  • cPercent of all observations in this smoking category.

  • dDefined as follows: MONICA, NRP 1A, and SOMIPOPS: regularly eating three main meals per day; SHS 92/93: eating fruits and vegetables at least once per day.

  • ePercent of all deaths in this smoking category.

  • fPercent of all cancer deaths in this smoking category.

  • gOnly women.

  • hOnly men.