Table 3.

Relative risks and 95% CIs for sitting time and site-specific cancer incidence in women, 1992–2009

Leisure-time spent sitting (h/d)
Cancer site<33–56 or more
Total cancerDeaths/person-years5,865/547,5694,104/363,4001,603/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea1,0961,1671,313
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.001.01 (0.97–1.05)1.12 (1.06–1.19)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.001.01 (0.97–1.05)1.10 (1.04–1.17)
Head and neckDeaths/person-years47/547,56932/363,40018/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea9915
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.000.97 (0.61–1.53)1.46 (0.84–2.54)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.000.97 (0.61–1.54)1.49 (0.86–2.61)
EsophagusDeaths/person-years22/547,56916/363,4007/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea456
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.001.05 (0.54–2.04)1.14 (0.48–2.74)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.001.06 (0.54–2.05)1.13 (0.47–2.72)
StomachDeaths/person-years45/547,56923/363,40012/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea9710
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.000.79 (0.47–1.32)1.02 (0.54–1.96)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.000.80 (0.48–1.34)1.06 (0.55–2.03)
Colon and rectumdDeaths/person-years644/547,569404/363,400151/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea123118125
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.000.90 (0.79–1.02)0.97 (0.81–1.16)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.000.89 (0.78–1.01)0.95 (0.79–1.14)
LiverDeaths/person-years42/547,56928/363,4009/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea888
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.000.94 (0.58–1.54)0.77 (0.37–1.60)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.000.92 (0.56–1.51)0.73 (0.35–1.53)
GallbladderDeaths/person-years24/547,56924/363,4009/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea578
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.001.53 (0.86–2.75)1.52 (0.70–3.32)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.001.49 (0.83–2.68)1.43 (0.65–3.14)
PancreasdDeaths/person-years182/547,569121/363,40047/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea363639
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.000.97 (0.77–1.23)1.04 (0.75–1.44)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.000.96 (0.76–1.22)1.02 (0.73–1.41)
LungDeaths/person-years552/547,569395/363,400171/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea106115142
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.000.92 (0.81–1.05)0.96 (0.80–1.14)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.000.93 (0.82–1.07)0.98 (0.82–1.17)
MelanomaDeaths/person-years414/547,569263/363,40092/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea777376
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.000.98 (0.84–1.14)0.99 (0.78–1.24)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.000.98 (0.84–1.15)0.99 (0.79–1.25)
KidneyDeaths/person-years101/547,56959/363,40026/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea191821
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.000.91 (0.66–1.27)1.01 (0.65–1.57)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.000.90 (0.64–1.24)0.97 (0.62–1.51)
BladderDeaths/person-years126/547,569109/363,40036/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea243230
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.001.23 (0.94–1.60)1.17 (0.80–1.70)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.001.23 (0.95–1.60)1.17 (0.80–1.70)
Non-Hodgkin lymphomaDeaths/person-years384/547,569283/363,400100/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea738382
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.001.13 (0.96–1.32)1.09 (0.87–1.36)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.001.12 (0.96–1.31)1.07 (0.86–1.35)
Multiple myelomaDeaths/person-years75/547,56966/363,40030/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea152025
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.001.31 (0.93–1.84)1.64 (1.06–2.53)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.001.31 (0.93–1.85)1.65 (1.07–2.54)
BreasteDeaths/person-years2,120/547,5691,490/363,400555/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea388410451
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.001.01 (0.95–1.08)1.12 (1.02–1.24)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.001.00 (0.94–1.07)1.10 (1.00–1.21)
EndometriumfDeaths/person-years372/337,664292/227,571112/74,565
Age-adj. Rate*109132146
MV-adj. RR† (95% CI)1.001.10 (0.94–1.28)1.34 (1.08–1.67)
MV-adj. RR† (95% CI)1.001.04 (0.89–1.22)1.21 (0.97–1.50)
OvarygDeaths/person-years231/418,733193/282,04377/92,853
Age-adj. Ratea567085
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.001.18 (0.97–1.43)1.42 (1.09–1.85)
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.001.18 (0.97–1.44)1.43 (1.10–1.87)
All other sites combinedDeaths/person-years613/547,569413/363,400175/121,924
Age-adj. Ratea117122146
MV-adj. RRb (95% CI)1.000.98 (0.87–1.13)1.21 (1.02–1.44
MV-adj. RRc (95% CI)1.000.98 (0.86–1.11)1.15 (0.97–1.37)
  • aRate per 100,000 standardized to the age-adjusted distribution of the CPS-II population.

  • bAdjusted for physical activity (exercise, daily-life, and light housekeeping), race, smoking status, duration and frequency of smoking among current smokers, years since quitting among former smokers, education, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, red/processed meat intake, family history of cancer, prevalent chronic disease, diabetes, menopausal status, and postmenopausal hormone use.

  • cAdditional adjustment for BMI.

  • dAlso adjusted for endoscopy screening.

  • eAlso adjusted for history of mammography screening and hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy.

  • fExcluded women without an intact uterus.

  • gExcluded women without ovaries.