Table 3.

Multivariate-adjusteda geometric means of estrogen metabolism measures by category of coffee intake

Geometric mean by coffee intake
≤6 cups/wk1 cup/day2–3 cups/day4+ cups/dayPtrend
N2937318140
Individual and grouped EM (pmol/mg creatinine)
Total EM195.5197.0207.2222.70.08
Parent estrogens40.541.841.244.40.37
 Estrone26.128.027.628.50.29
 Estradiol13.512.513.314.70.51
Catechols61.262.069.488.50.002
2-catechols51.954.459.779.00.001
  2-Hydroxyestrone45.748.452.669.60.001
  2-Hydroxyestradiol5.45.36.18.40.001
 4-catechols
  4-Hydroxyestrone6.15.56.17.10.61
Methylated catechols11.210.210.410.70.49
 Methylated 2-catechols10.89.810.010.40.46
  2-Methoxyestrone8.37.67.87.90.45
  2-Methoxyestradiol0.710.710.690.730.94
  2-Hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether1.41.21.31.30.37
 Methylated 4-catechols0.250.230.250.260.86
  4-Methoxyestrone0.160.140.160.180.47
  4-Methoxyestradiol0.060.060.050.050.51
2-Hydroxylation pathway64.364.870.790.50.01
4-Hydroxylation pathway7.06.17.17.80.59
16-Hydroxylation pathway65.865.765.861.60.79
 16α-Hydroxyestrone10.711.411.312.60.17
 Estriol29.427.928.324.60.30
 17-Epiestriol1.71.61.41.90.51
 16-Ketoestradiol13.114.013.713.60.45
 16-Epiestriol5.65.36.05.90.28
Ratios (pmol/pmol)
2-Hydroxyestrone/16α-hydroxyestrone4.34.14.55.00.32
4-Pathway/2-pathway0.100.100.090.090.03
2-Pathway/16-pathway0.941.01.11.40.01
2,4-Pathway/16-pathway0.100.090.110.120.53
2-Catechols/methylated 2-catechols4.75.56.07.4<0.0001
4-Catechols/methylated 4-catechols25.123.326.229.20.54
Catechols/methylated catechols5.46.06.78.1<0.0001
Parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathways0.280.280.260.250.10
2-Pathway/parent estrogens1.51.61.72.00.003
4-Pathway/parent estrogens0.170.150.170.170.84
16-Pathway/parent estrogens1.61.61.61.50.35
  • aAdjusted for age at urine collection (continuous), BMI at collection (kg/m2, continuous), height (continuous), ovulatory cycle (yes/no), first-morning urine (yes/no), quartiles of alcohol intake (nondrinker, ≤1.49, 1.50–4.85, >4.85 g/day), total physical activity (<3, 3–8.9, 9–17.9, 18–26.9, 27–41.9, ≥42 MET h/week), current tobacco use (yes/no), luteal day (≤5, 6–7, 8–9, ≥10 days to next period), usual menstrual cycle length (<26, 26–31, ≥32 days), menstrual cycle regularity (extremely regular, very regular, regular, usually/always irregular), and age at first birth and parity (nulliparous, age at first birth <25 years/1–2 children, age at first birth 25–29 years/1–2 children, age at first birth ≥30 years/1–2 children, age at first birth <25 years/≥3 children, age at first birth ≥25 years/≥3 children). Numbers do not sum to 603 due to missing values for exposure. Significant Ptrend shown in bold.