Table 4.

Multivariate-adjusteda geometric means of estrogen metabolism measures by category of decaffeinated coffee intake

Geometric mean by decaffeinated coffee intake
≤1–3 cups/month1–6 cups/week1 cup/day2+ cups/dayPtrend
N3691323644
Individual and grouped EM (pmol/mg creatinine)
Total EM208.1212.0175.8205.20.60
Parent estrogens42.545.233.539.60.28
 Estrone28.128.721.526.80.42
 Estradiol13.814.810.812.20.07
Catechols65.974.863.676.60.33
 2-catechols56.764.354.865.20.35
  2-Hydroxyestrone50.056.848.757.20.39
  2-Hydroxyestradiol5.86.45.37.00.19
 4-catechols
  4-Hydroxyestrone6.46.84.36.80.73
Methylated catechols10.911.98.711.10.86
 Methylated 2-catechols10.511.58.410.70.93
  2-Methoxyestrone8.29.06.38.40.86
  2-Methoxyestradiol0.710.730.610.720.69
  2-Hydroxyestrone-3-methyl ether1.31.41.21.50.27
 Methylated 4-catechols0.260.260.200.270.96
  4-Methoxyestrone0.170.160.140.160.64
  4-Methoxyestradiol0.060.060.050.070.38
2-Hydroxylation pathway68.677.265.876.50.46
4-Hydroxylation pathway7.37.55.47.80.84
16-Hydroxylation pathway67.965.661.257.30.14
 16α-Hydroxyestrone11.311.311.410.70.99
Estriol29.730.323.522.30.01
17-Epiestriol1.81.51.70.920.0004
 16-Ketoestradiol14.013.113.012.00.31
 16-Epiestriol6.05.75.05.10.11
Ratios (pmol/pmol)
2-Hydroxyestrone/16α-hydroxyestrone4.34.84.15.30.42
4-Pathway/2-pathway0.100.100.090.090.56
2-Pathway/16-pathway1.021.151.01.20.28
2,4-Pathway/16-pathway0.100.110.100.130.31
2-Catechols/methylated 2-catechols5.45.65.76.10.27
4-Catechols/methylated 4-catechols25.227.724.127.70.91
Catechols/methylated catechols6.16.36.36.90.25
Parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathways0.270.280.220.280.84
2-Pathway/parent estrogens1.61.71.81.80.22
4-Pathway/parent estrogens0.170.170.180.190.39
16-Pathway/parent estrogens1.61.51.91.40.62
  • aAdjusted for age at urine collection (continuous), BMI at collection (kg/m2, continuous), height (continuous), ovulatory cycle (yes/no), first-morning urine (yes/no), quartiles of alcohol intake (nondrinker, ≤1.49, 1.50–4.85, >4.85 g/day), total physical activity (<3, 3–8.9, 9–17.9, 18–26.9, 27–41.9, ≥42 MET h/week), current tobacco use (yes/no), luteal day (≤5, 6–7, 8–9, ≥10 days to next period), usual menstrual cycle length (<26, 26–31, ≥32 days), menstrual cycle regularity (extremely regular, very regular, regular, usually/always irregular), and age at first birth and parity (nulliparous, age at first birth <25 years/1–2 children, age at first birth 25–29 years/1–2 children, age at first birth ≥30 years/1–2 children, age at first birth <25 years/ ≥3 children, age at first birth ≥25 years/≥3 children). Numbers do not sum to 603 due to missing values for exposure. Significant Ptrend shown in bold.