Table 2.

Factors associated with nonattendance at cervical screening in the past 5 years in women ages 26 to 64 years

Not screened versus screened in past 5 years
Not in past 5 years% (95% CI)OR (95% CI)Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)Denominator (unwt, wt)a
All ages8.9% (8.0–9.8)5,012, 4,731
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age, yearsP < 0.0001
  26–2914.9% (12.7–17.4)2.28 (1.72–3.00)1,121, 547
  30–397.1% (5.9–8.7)1 (—)1,605, 1,312
  40–496.2% (4.9–8.0)0.86 (0.61–1.21)1,107, 1,404
  50–599.6% (7.8–11.9)1.38 (1.01–1.90)826, 1,058
  60–6413.4% (9.7–18.2)2.01 (1.32–3.05)353, 411
 Relationship status at interviewP < 0.0001P = 0.0004
  Living with a partner8.0% (7.0–9.1)1 (—)1 (—)3,151, 3,476
  In a steady relationship (but not living with a partner)8.4% (6.3–11.2)1.06 (0.75–1.50)1.04 (0.73–1.46)585, 373
  Previously in a live-in partnership11.5% (9.4–14.0)1.50 (1.14–1.96)1.43 (1.09–1.87)1,015, 717
  Not in a steady relationship (never lived with partner)18.5% (13.1–25.4)2.61 (1.71–3.99)2.31 (1.49–3.57)234, 145
 IMD (quintiles)bP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  1–2 (least deprived)6.3% (5.2–7.6)1 (—)1 (—)1,885, 1,938
  38.9% (7.1–11.2)1.46 (1.06–2.00)1.44 (1.05–1.98)1,003, 943
  4–5 (most deprived)11.5% (10.1–13.2)1.95 (1.52–2.50)1.91 (1.48–2.47)2,124, 1,850
 Academic qualificationsP < 0.0001P = 0.0001
  No academic qualifications14.1% (11.5–17.1)2.04 (1.53–2.73)1.95 (1.43–2.66)751, 764
  Academic qualifications typically gained at age 168.1% (6.8–9.5)1.09 (0.84–1.42)1.16 (0.88–1.52)1,828, 1,730
  Studying for/attained further academic qualifications7.4% (6.3–8.7)1 (—)1 (—)2,278, 2,102
 Housing tenureP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  Own outright9.6% (7.7–12.0)1.77 (1.28–2.46)1.34 (0.93–1.92)868, 1,034
  Buying with a mortgage or loanc5.7% (4.7–6.9)1 (—)1 (—)2,092, 2,118
  Rent it12.6% (11.0–14.3)2.40 (1.86–3.08)2.14 (1.65–2.78)1,967, 1,505
  Lives rent free17.3% (9.4–29.8)3.49 (1.70–7.19)2.88 (1.44–5.77)71, 59
 Respondent's NS-SECP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  Managerial & professional occupations6.4% (5.3–7.7)1 (—)1 (—)1,868, 1,810
  Intermediate occupations7.0% (5.5–8.8)1.10 (0.80–1.53)1.07 (0.77–1.49)1,160, 1,081
  Semiroutine/routine occupations11.8% (10.0–13.9)1.96 (1.49–2.59)1.88 (1.42–2.49)1,361, 1,249
  No job (10+ hours/week) or not in last 10 years14.8% (11.4–18.9)2.54 (1.77–3.65)2.40 (1.66–3.47)475, 474
  Student in full-time education9.5% (5.1–17.1)1.55 (0.77–3.11)1.32 (0.67–2.62)124, 95
 Ethnic groupP = 0.0066P = 0.0052
  White8.3% (7.4–9.2)1 (—)1 (—)4,415, 4,155
  Mixed11.7% (5.7–22.4)1.46 (0.68–3.17)1.49 (0.68–3.25)89, 72
  Asian/Asian British15.1% (10.9–20.6)1.97 (1.32–2.93)1.96 (1.32–2.90)254, 256
  Black/Black British11.8% (6.8–19.6)1.48 (0.81–2.71)1.62 (0.88–2.97)174, 176
  Other12.5% (6.5–22.7)1.58 (0.78–3.24)1.52 (0.73–3.16)69, 63
 ReligionP = 0.0076P = 0.0049
  None9.4% (8.2–10.9)1 (—)1 (—)2,330, 2,052
  Christian—Church of England/Anglican6.3% (4.8–8.4)0.65 (0.46–0.92)0.60 (0.42–0.86)832, 906
  Christian—Roman Catholic7.9% (5.9–10.6)0.83 (0.58–1.19)0.80 (0.55–1.16)582, 558
  Christian—other9.2% (7.2–11.7)0.97 (0.72–1.32)0.93 (0.68–1.28)930, 903
  Muslim13.9% (8.8–21.1)1.55 (0.91–2.63)1.50 (0.88–2.56)160, 152
  Hindu19.6% (11.2–32.1)2.34 (1.20–4.57)2.21 (1.13–4.32)68, 57
  Other8.6% (3.8–18.5)0.91 (0.38–2.18)0.91 (0.40–2.08)102, 94
 Sexual identityP = 0.0271P = 0.0234
  Heterosexual/straight8.7% (7.9–9.7)1 (—)1 (—)4,849, 4,599
  Gay/lesbian20.9% (11.1–35.7)2.76 (1.31–5.78)2.94 (1.36–6.38)63, 56
  Bisexual8.3% (3.9–16.5)0.94 (0.43–2.05)0.93 (0.44–1.98)75, 53
Health behaviors
 Smoking statusP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  Non/ex-smoker7.5% (6.6–8.5)1 (—)1 (—)3,700, 3,646
  Current smoker13.5% (11.5–15.7)1.92 (1.54–2.40)1.97 (1.57–2.47)1,312, 1,085
 Frequency of binge drinkingdP = 0.0277P = 0.0473
  Never/less than monthly9.5% (8.5–10.6)1 (—)1 (—)3,769, 3,636
  Monthly6.7% (5.0–9.0)0.69 (0.49–0.96)0.69 (0.49–0.97)664, 568
  Weekly or more often7.1% (5.3–9.4)0.73 (0.52–1.02)0.77 (0.55–1.09)578, 527
Sexual behaviors
 Age at first heterosexual sex (years)P = 0.3000P = 0.5485
  18+9.7% (8.3–11.2)1 (—)1 (—)1,971, 2,033
  16/178.2% (6.9–9.7)0.83 (0.65–1.06)0.89 (0.69–1.14)1,943, 1,825
  <168.4% (6.7–10.5)0.86 (0.64–1.15)0.87 (0.64–1.18)1,040, 812
 Number of sexual partners, lifetimeeP = 0.0612P = 0.2391
  111.4% (9.3–13.9)1 (—)1 (—)832, 923
  29.4% (7.0–12.4)0.80 (0.54–1.19)0.81 (0.55–1.21)468, 478
  3–48.5% (6.8–10.6)0.72 (0.51–1.02)0.77 (0.54–1.09)920, 890
  5–98.0% (6.5–9.9)0.68 (0.49–0.94)0.74 (0.54–1.03)1,338, 1,246
  10+7.5% (6.0–9.3)0.63 (0.45–0.87)0.68 (0.48–0.96)1,367, 1,105
 Number of sexual partners, past 5 yearseP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  019.3% (15.0–24.5)2.72 (1.94–3.82)2.45 (1.67–3.61)358, 342
  18.1% (7.1–9.2)1 (—)1 (—)3,133, 3,311
  28.2% (6.1–10.9)1.02 (0.72–1.45)0.94 (0.66–1.34)625, 471
  3–47.1% (5.1–9.8)0.87 (0.60–1.25)0.73 (0.50–1.05)489, 328
  5+8.2% (5.6–12.0)1.02 (0.66–1.58)0.77 (0.49–1.22)349, 216
 Number of sexual partners without a condom, past yeareP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  014.1% (12.0–16.6)1 (—)1 (—)1,263, 1,136
  17.1% (6.2–8.1)0.46 (0.37–0.59)0.48 (0.38–0.62)3,420, 3,358
  2+8.2% (5.0–12.9)0.54 (0.31–0.93)0.50 (0.28–0.89)259, 163
Health-related factors
 Used hormonal contraceptionf, past yearP = 0.0001P < 0.0001
  No9.8% (8.7–10.9)1 (—)1 (—)3,369, 3,489
  Yes6.3% (5.1–7.6)0.62 (0.48–0.79)0.53 (0.41–0.69)1,573, 1,168
 Ever attended a sexual health (GUM) clinicP = 0.0002P < 0.0001
  No9.7% (8.7–10.8)1 (—)1 (—)3,611, 3,636
  Yes6.0% (4.8–7.5)0.60 (0.46–0.78)0.53 (0.40–0.69)1,353, 1,041
 Ever diagnosed with a STIgP = 0.0004P = 0.0002
  No (or only thrush)9.5% (8.6–10.6)1 (—)1 (—)4,080, 3,958
  Yes (excluding thrush)5.1% (3.7–7.1)0.51 (0.35–0.74)0.49 (0.33–0.71)882, 717
 STI risk: to selfP = 0.0377P = 0.0200
  Greatly at risk/quite a lot5.5% (2.9–10.0)1 (—)1 (—)130, 97
  Not very much7.1% (5.6–9.1)1.33 (0.65–2.71)1.34 (0.67–2.67)903, 715
  Not at all at risk9.3% (8.3–10.3)1.78 (0.92–3.44)1.83 (0.97–3.48)3958, 3900
 All women ages 26 to 44 who have not had a hysterectomy and who provided a urine sample10.6% (8.7–12.8)1,474, 1,512h
 1+ high-risk HPV type(s)P = 0.2062P = 0.2775
  Negative10.1% (8.1–12.5)1 (—)1 (—)1,243, 1,329
  Positive13.7% (9.0–20.5)1.42 (0.83–2.44)1.35 (0.79–2.31)231, 184
  • aParticipants who have not had a hysterectomy and who reported at least 1 lifetime sexual partner (unweighted, weighted).

  • bIMD is a multidimensional measure of area (neighborhood)-level deprivation based on the participant's postcode. IMD scores for England, Scotland, and Wales were adjusted before being combined and assigned to quintiles, using a method by Payne and Abel (20).

  • cIncludes 46 women paying part mortgage and part rent (shared ownership).

  • dBinge drinking defined as having six units on one occasion.

  • eIncludes both opposite-sex and same-sex partners.

  • fDefined as having used the oral contraceptive pill, hormonal IUD, injections, or implants.

  • gDefined as having been diagnosed with one of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts, trichomonas, nonspecific urethritis/non-gonococcal urethritis.

  • hParticipants ages 26 to 44 years who have not had a hysterectomy, who reported at least 1 lifetime sexual partner and who provided a urine sample.