Table 1.

Factors associated with high-risk HPV in urine in sexually experienced women ages 16 to 44 years

% (95% CI)OR (95% CI)Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)Denominator (unwt, wt)a
All15.9% (14.4–17.5)2,569, 2,189
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Age (years)P < 0.0001
  16–1924.4% (20.0–29.3)1 (—)377, 203
  20–2426.6% (22.8–30.8)1.13 (0.82–1.56)580, 370
  25–3415.6% (13.4–18.2)0.58 (0.42–0.79)1,108, 779
  35–449.3% (7.1–12.2)0.32 (0.22–0.47)504, 837
 Relationship status at interviewP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  Living with a partner11.2% (9.5–13.1)1 (—)1 (—)1,256, 1,357
  In a steady relationship (but not living with a partner)26.0% (22.2–30.1)2.79 (2.13–3.66)1.95 (1.44–2.65)602, 360
  Previously in a live-in partnership19.9% (15.3–25.4)1.97 (1.37–2.84)1.92 (1.34–2.76)353, 240
  Not in a steady relationship (never lived with partner)23.9% (18.8–29.8)2.49 (1.76–3.54)1.65 (1.13–2.42)355, 229
 IMD (quintiles)bP = 0.0238P = 0.0578
  1–2 (least deprived)13.5% (11.2–16.1)1 (—)1 (—)873, 778
  315.0% (11.8–18.7)1.13 (0.80–1.58)1.12 (0.80–1.57)502, 439
  4–5 (most deprived)18.3% (15.9–20.9)1.43 (1.10–1.87)1.37 (1.05–1.80)1,194, 973
 Academic qualificationscP = 0.6717P = 0.1250
  No academic qualifications15.1% (10.5–21.4)0.99 (0.63–1.56)1.13 (0.72–1.77)215, 191
  Academic qualifications typically gained at age 1616.7% (14.1–19.6)1.12 (0.87–1.44)1.3 (1.01–1.68)877, 748
  Studying for/attained further academic qualifications15.2% (13.3–17.4)1 (—)1 (—)1,348, 1,157
 Housing tenureP < 0.0001P = 0.0011
  Own outright14.3% (10.0–19.9)1.38 (0.88–2.16)1.15 (0.72–1.81)218, 201
  Buying with a mortgage or loand10.8% (8.9–13.0)1 (—)1 (—)911, 912
  Rent it20.5% (18.0–23.1)2.13 (1.64–2.78)1.71 (1.30–2.26)1,325, 996
  Lives rent free24.1% (16.6–33.8)2.64 (1.59–4.38)1.53 (0.91–2.56)106, 74
 Respondent's NS-SECP < 0.0001P = 0.0009
  Managerial and professional occupations10.3% (8.3–12.7)1 (—)1 (—)709, 714
  Intermediate occupations16.6% (13.0–21.1)1.74 (1.21–2.52)1.60 (1.11–2.30)464, 423
  Semiroutine/routine occupations18.5% (15.6–21.7)1.98 (1.45–2.69)1.57 (1.14–2.17)780, 617
  No job (10+ hours/week) or not in last 10 years22.5% (16.6–29.8)2.53 (1.62–3.96)2.08 (1.31–3.31)210, 173
  Student in full-time education19.8% (15.8–24.6)2.16 (1.50–3.11)1.01 (0.66–1.55)398, 256
 Ethnic groupeP = 0.0061P = 0.0150
  White16.2% (14.6–18.0)1 (—)1 (—)2,312, 1,914
  Mixed29.7% (19.4–42.7)2.18 (1.24–3.85)2.00 (1.09–3.67)74, 58
  Asian/Asian British7.0% (2.9–15.5)0.39 (0.16–0.95)0.40 (0.17–0.97)82, 114
  Black/Black British12.6% (6.8–22.0)0.74 (0.38–1.46)0.69 (0.36–1.32)77, 77
 ReligionP = 0.0286P = 0.2671
  None17.7% (15.7–20.0)1 (—)1 (—)1,509, 1,189
  Christian—Church of England/Anglican9.8% (6.2–15.2)0.51 (0.30–0.85)0.70 (0.42–1.19)220, 235
  Christian—Roman Catholic14.2% (10.3–19.3)0.77 (0.52–1.14)0.84 (0.57–1.25)261, 226
  Christian—other17.0% (13.4–21.5)0.96 (0.69–1.32)1.01 (0.73–1.39)457, 396
  Non-Christian10.4% (5.9–17.7)0.54 (0.29–1.01)0.57 (0.31–1.05)122, 142
 Sexual identityP = 0.2447P = 0.1893
  Heterosexual/straight16.1% (14.5–17.8)1 (—)1 (—)2,457, 2,108
  Gay/lesbian/bisexual11.4% (6.1–20.1)0.67 (0.34–1.32)0.62 (0.31–1.26)107, 79
Health behaviors
 Smoking statusP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  Non/ex-smoker12.9% (11.4–14.7)1 (—)1 (—)1,702, 1,568
  Current smoker23.4% (20.1–26.9)2.05 (1.61–2.60)1.91 (1.49–2.43)867, 622
 Frequency of binge drinkingfP = 0.0001P = 0.0011
  Never/less than monthly13.9% (12.2–15.7)1 (—)1 (—)1,730, 1,573
  Monthly19.1% (15.6–23.2)1.47 (1.10–1.96)1.31 (0.98–1.75)484, 355
  Weekly or more often23.8% (19.1–29.3)1.94 (1.42–2.66)1.80 (1.31–2.47)355, 261
Sexual behaviors
 Age at first heterosexual sex (years)P < 0.0001P = 0.0059
  18+11.0% (8.5–14.0)1 (—)1 (—)577, 642
  1712.9% (9.8–16.7)1.20 (0.79–1.82)1.18 (0.78–1.80)432, 419
  1620.5% (17.2–24.3)2.10 (1.48–2.97)1.78 (1.24–2.56)659, 517
  <1620.2% (17.4–23.4)2.06 (1.47–2.89)1.65 (1.17–2.34)859, 577
 Number of sexual partners, lifetimegP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  14.2% (2.4–7.2)1 (—)1 (—)342, 361
  211.3% (7.5–16.5)2.89 (1.40–5.96)2.74 (1.32–5.69)234, 213
  3–413.7% (10.6–17.5)3.60 (1.91–6.81)3.71 (1.97–7.01)441, 388
  5–917.2% (14.3–20.6)4.74 (2.55–8.79)5.67 (3.07–10.46)709, 593
  10+24.0% (20.9–27.4)7.19 (3.94–13.10)9.35 (5.14–17.02)822, 614
 Number of sexual partners, past 5 yearsgP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  0/17.1% (5.7–8.9)1 (—)1 (—)1,162, 1,258
  221.9% (17.5–26.9)3.64 (2.52–5.25)3.34 (2.29–4.86)425, 316
  3–423.0% (19.0–27.4)3.88 (2.77–5.42)3.43 (2.45–4.79)424, 290
  5+37.5% (32.7–42.7)7.82 (5.63–10.86)6.62 (4.68–9.38)544, 313
 Number of sexual partners without a condom, past yeargP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  011.3% (8.5–14.8)1 (—)1 (—)449, 405
  114.0% (12.3–15.9)1.28 (0.91–1.80)1.35 (0.96–1.90)1,741, 1,566
  2+40.1% (33.9–46.5)5.27 (3.49–7.95)4.35 (2.87–6.60)347, 193
Sexual health and services
 Used hormonal contraceptionh, past yearP = 0.0001P = 0.1711
  No13.1% (11.1–15.5)1 (—)1 (—)1,172, 1,137
  Yes19.7% (17.5–22.1)1.63 (1.28–2.07)1.20 (0.92–1.55)982, 1,388
 Attended a sexual health (GUM) clinic, past 5 yearsP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  No11.7% (10.2–13.4)1 (—)1 (—)1,779, 1,686
  Yes30.4% (26.8–34.2)3.29 (2.62–4.14)2.54 (2.00–3.23)765, 484
 STI diagnosisi, past 5 yearsP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  No14.7% (13.2–16.4)1 (—)1 (—)2,316, 2,038
  Yes35.3% (29.2–41.9)3.16 (2.33–4.28)2.36 (1.76–3.16)237, 134
 Genital warts diagnosis, everP = 0.2095P = 0.0891
  No15.8% (14.3–17.5)1 (—)1 (—)2,436, 2,085
  Yes20.2% (13.9–28.3)1.35 (0.85–2.14)1.47 (0.94–2.30)117, 86
  • aParticipants who reported at least one lifetime sexual partner, with urine test results [unweighted (unwt), weighted (wt)].

  • bIMD is a multidimensional measure of area (neighborhood)-level deprivation based on the participant's postcode. IMD scores for England, Scotland, and Wales were adjusted before being combined and assigned to quintiles, using a method by Payne and Abel (20).

  • cParticipants aged ≥17 years.

  • dIncludes 29 women paying part mortgage and part rent (shared ownership).

  • eThose of Chinese/other ethnicity are excluded from the denominator due to small numbers.

  • fBinge drinking defined as having six units on one occasion.

  • gIncludes both opposite-sex and same-sex partners.

  • hDefined as having used the oral contraceptive pill, hormonal IUD, injections, or implants.

  • iDefined as having been diagnosed with one of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts, trichomonas, nonspecific urethritis/non-gonococcal urethritis.