Table 4.

Factors associated with noncompletion of HPV catch-up vaccination

Not completed versus completed
Not completed% (95% CI)OR (95% CI)Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)Denominator (unwt, wt)
All eligible for HPV catch-up vaccination program38.5% (35.3–41.9)1,050, 562
Socio-demographic factors
 Age at interview (years)P < 0.0001
  16–1728.0% (23.2–33.4)1 (—)394, 195
  18–1941.7% (36.7–47.0)1.84 (1.33–2.56)449, 241
  20–2148.7% (41.3–56.1)2.44 (1.64–3.63)207, 125
 School year at eligibility for HPV vaccination programP < 0.0001P = 0.0060
  14 (Y10/S3)27.1% (20.1–35.3)1 (—)1 (—)153, 78
  15 (Y11/S4)26.8% (21.1–33.3)0.99 (0.61–1.59)1.01 (0.62–1.65)244, 123
  16 (Y12/S5)35.8% (29.5–42.6)1.50 (0.94–2.39)1.57 (0.90–2.74)238, 117
  17 (Y13/S6 or post school)49.4% (44.1–54.8)2.64 (1.69–4.10)2.87 (1.39–5.95)415, 243
 Grouped government office regionP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  Rest of England36.4% (32.7–40.2)1 (—)1 (—)803, 421
  London62.4% (52.3–71.5)2.90 (1.87–4.50)2.76 (1.77–4.30)100, 66
  Scotland19.8% (13.1–28.8)0.43 (0.26–0.72)0.41 (0.24–0.70)89, 46
  Wales44.4% (31.0–58.6)1.40 (0.78–2.48)1.31 (0.74–2.35)58, 29
 IMD (quintiles)aP < 0.0001P = 0.0001
  1–2 (least deprived)30.1% (25.3–35.4)1 (—)1 (—)393, 210
  336.7% (29.4–44.7)1.34 (0.90–2.01)1.35 (0.90–2.04)209, 116
  4–5 (most deprived)46.9% (42.0–51.9)2.05 (1.50–2.81)1.99 (1.44–2.74)448, 236
 Parents' social classP = 0.0308P = 0.0285
  I/II/III35.1% (31.2–39.2)1 (—)1 (—)714, 385
  IV/V44.9% (37.0–53.1)1.51 (1.04–2.19)1.52 (1.05–2.21)196, 103
 Academic qualificationsbP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  No academic qualifications75.2% (55.9–87.9)6.04 (2.63–13.85)5.84 (2.50–13.62)39, 18
  Academic qualifications typically gained at age 1657.2% (49.3–64.7)2.66 (1.85–3.83)2.52 (1.75–3.65)188, 92
  Studying for/attained further academic qualifications33.4% (29.5–37.6)1 (—)1 (—)650, 361
 Ethnic groupP = 0.0015P = 0.0001
  White36.3% (32.9–39.7)1 (—)1 (—)937, 491
  Non-white54.1% (43.5–64.5)2.07 (1.32–3.25)2.01 (1.29–3.13)113, 71
Health behaviors
 Smoking statusP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  Non/ex-smoker31.8% (28.3–35.7)1 (—)1 (—)737, 400
  Current smoker55.0% (48.9–61.0)2.62 (1.95–3.53)2.61 (1.93–3.55)313, 162
 Frequency of binge drinkingcP = 0.0665P = 0.1886
  Never/less than monthly36.8% (32.9–41.0)1 (—)1 (—)712, 376
  Monthly36.9% (30.0–44.5)1.00 (0.71–1.43)0.90 (0.62–1.30)200, 107
  Weekly or more often48.4% (39.4–57.6)1.61 (1.07–2.42)1.41 (0.92–2.15)137, 78
Sexual behaviors (all eligible for catch-up vaccination)
 Number of sexual partners, lifetimedP < 0.0001P = 0.0107
  024.5% (18.4–31.7)0.62 (0.38–1.01)0.72 (0.43–1.18)205, 109
  134.4% (27.1–42.5)1 (—)1 (—)203, 113
  237.6% (29.1–46.8)1.15 (0.69–1.89)1.12 (0.68–1.84)147, 77
  3–439.6% (31.6–48.2)1.25 (0.77–2.03)1.22 (0.75–2.00)171, 93
  5+49.9% (43.6–56.1)1.89 (1.23–2.91)1.70 (1.09–2.63)317, 167
All eligible for HPV catch-up vaccination program with 1+ lifetime partnerd41.9% (38.3–45.6)843, 451
Sexual behaviors (those with 1+ lifetime partner)
 Had heterosexual sex before 16P = 0.0088P = 0.0014
  No37.5% (32.7–42.6)1 (—)1 (—)456, 252
  Yes47.7% (42.0–53.4)1.52 (1.11–2.07)1.68 (1.22–2.30)355, 181
 Number of sexual partners, past yeardP = 0.3294P = 0.2689
  0/139.7% (35.0–44.6)1 (—)1 (—)475, 260
  244.8% (36.2–53.6)1.23 (0.82–1.84)1.28 (0.85–1.93)156, 78
  3+45.7% (38.2–53.3)1.28 (0.89–1.84)1.30 (0.90–1.88)203, 108
 Number of sexual partners without a condom, past yeardP = 0.0092P = 0.0065
  038.8% (31.0–47.2)1 (—)1 (—)196, 106
  139.6% (34.7–44.7)1.03 (0.68–1.56)1.03 (0.69–1.55)443, 238
  2+53.1% (45.1–60.9)1.79 (1.13–2.83)1.83 (1.16–2.88)185, 98
Health-related factors
 Used hormonal contraception, past yeareP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  No54.3% (47.1–61.4)1 (—)1 (—)235, 131
  Yes36.4% (32.4–40.7)0.48 (0.34–0.68)0.47 (0.34–0.67)570, 299
 Ever attended a sexual health (GUM) clinicP = 0.0044P = 0.0100
  No37.2% (32.6–42.1)1 (—)1 (—)462, 251
  Yes47.8% (42.3–53.3)1.54 (1.15–2.08)1.49 (1.10–2.02)377, 199
 Ever diagnosed with an STI (excluding thrush)fP = 0.1735P = 0.4147
  No (or only thrush)41.0% (37.1–45.0)1 (—)1 (—)730, 395
  Yes48.5% (38.3–58.8)1.36 (0.87–2.10)1.20 (0.77–1.88)109, 55
 Ever been pregnantP < 0.0001P < 0.0001
  No35.4% (31.4–39.8)1 (—)1 (—)633, 346
  Yes63.4% (55.9–70.2)3.15 (2.21–4.49)2.94 (2.04–4.23)210, 105
All eligible for HPV catch-up vaccination program with 1+ lifetime partnerd who provided a urine sample41.0% (36.1–46.1)481, 273
HPV markers in urine
 Any HPV type(s)P = 0.0302P = 0.0383
  HPV negative36.0% (29.3–43.2)1 (—)1 (—)253, 152
  HPV positive47.2% (40.0–54.6)1.60 (1.04–2.44)1.57 (1.02–2.40)228, 121
 1+ high-risk HPV type(s)P = 0.0003P = 0.0005
  Negative35.3% (29.6–41.4)1 (—)1 (—)347, 200
  Positive56.6% (46.8–65.9)2.39 (1.49–3.83)2.33 (1.45–3.74)134, 73
  • aIMD is a multidimensional measure of area (neighborhood)-level deprivation based on the participant's postcode. IMD scores for England, Scotland, and Wales were adjusted before being combined and assigned to quintiles, using a method by Payne and Abel (20).

  • bParticipants aged ≥17 years.

  • cBinge drinking defined as having six units on one occasion.

  • dIncludes both opposite-sex and same-sex partners.

  • eDefined as having used the oral contraceptive pill, hormonal IUD, injections, or implants.

  • fDefined as having been diagnosed with one of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts, trichomonas, nonspecific urethritis/non-gonococcal urethritis.