Table 1.

Baseline (1988) age-adjusted characteristics of participants by categories of somatotype at childhood and adolescence in the NHS and the HPFS

Women (NHS)Men (HPFS)
Somatotype at childhooddSomatotype at adolescenceeSomatotype at childhooddSomatotype at adolescencee
Somatotype 1 (n = 29,808)Somatotype 5+ (n = 5,303)Somatotype 1 (n = 19,839)Somatotype 5+ (n = 4,477)Somatotype 1 (n = 12,632)Somatotype 5+ (n = 4,301)Somatotype 1 (n = 6,361)Somatotype 5+ (n = 4,100)
Age, y55.7 (7.0)54.2 (7.0)55.7 (6.9)54.4 (7.1)58.0 (9.4)53.9 (9.3)58.1 (9.2)53.4 (9.1)
Young adult BMIa, kg/m218.3 (6.1)22.4 (7.9)17.6 (5.8)23.8 (8.5)23.0 (3.6)23.4 (3.6)22.8 (3.6)23.4 (3.7)
Adult BMI in 1988, kg/m223.8 (3.7)27.0 (5.5)23.1 (3.2)28.2 (5.9)25.0 (2.8)26.7 (3.7)24.4 (2.6)27.0 (3.9)
Adult physical activity, MET-h/weekb15.0 (19.6)14.5 (18.2)15.0 (19.6)14.0 (17.6)23.9 (27.1)26.3 (27.9)23.0 (25.0)25.9 (29.0)
Regular aspirin use (2 or more tablets/wk), %6163616242414143
Past smoking, %3640354143474548
Current smoking, %182418228989
Multivitamin usec, %3838383840404040
Alcohol, g/d6.3 (9.7)6.3 (9.8)6.4 (9.7)5.5 (9.2)11.6 (15.5)11.4 (15.3)11.6 (15.5)11.1 (15.3)
Total calcium intake, μg/d872 (327)901 (332)867 (321)912 (341)886 (421)900 (430)880 (418)908 (437)
Red meat, servings/wk2.2 (1.4)2.2 (1.4)2.3 (1.5)2.1 (1.4)1.8 (1.6)1.7 (1.7)1.9 (1.6)1.7 (1.7)
Processed meat, servings/wk1.0 (1.3)1.0 (1.3)1.1 (1.3)1.0 (1.3)1.3 (1.9)1.2 (1.8)1.3 (1.9)1.2 (1.8)
Postmenopausal status, %73737373
Postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use, %38353934

NOTE: Values are means (SD) or percentages and are standardized to the age distribution of the study population except for the age variable.

  • aBMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters; BMI at age 18 (NHS) or age 21 (HPFS).

  • bHours of metabolic equivalent tasks.

  • cDietary intakes were estimated with food-frequency questionnaire in 1986 except for multivitamin use from the 1988 questionnaire in each cohort.

  • dAverage of somatotype at ages 5 and 10 years based on 9-level pictogram.

  • eAverage of somatotype at ages 10 and 20 years based on 9-level pictogram.