Table 4.

Geometric means (95% CIs) of total NNAL, free NNAL, and NNAL glucuronidation ratio, stratified by race/ethnicity

Model 1Model 2
NGeometric means95% CIGeometric means95% CI
Total NNAL (pmol/mL)
 African Americans3571.351.25–1.451.231.15–1.30
 Native Hawaiians3251.101.02–1.19b1.141.07–1.21
 Whites4341.351.26–1.451.181.12–1.25
 Latinos4421.091.02–1.17b1.161.10–1.22
 Japanese Americans6940.9840.933–1.04b1.071.02–1.12b
Pa<0.0010.0038
Free NNAL (pmol/mL)
 African Americans3450.3420.316–0.3700.3170.295–0.339
 Native Hawaiians3150.3320.306–0.3590.3430.320–0.368
 Whites4190.3660.341–0.3920.3270.308–0.348
 Latinos4210.3250.303–0.348b0.3390.319–0.360
 Japanese Americans6720.3150.298–0.333b0.3380.322–0.355
Pa0.0170.45
NNAL glucuronidation ratio
 African Americans3452.902.63–3.182.842.59–3.13
 Native Hawaiians3152.242.04–2.47b2.262.05–2.49b
 Whites4192.712.49–2.952.642.43–2.87
 Latinos4212.432.23–2.642.452.25–2.66
 Japanese Americans6722.091.96–2.23b2.121.99–2.27b
Pa<0.001<0.001

NOTE: Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, and Cr (natural log). Model 2: model 1 additionally adjusted for total nicotine equivalents.

  • aP comparing the difference across race/ethnicity.

  • bWhen compared with whites P < 0.05.