Table 1.

Main characteristics for study participants stratified by race/ethnicitya

African Americans (n = 357)Native Hawaiians (n = 325)Whites (n = 434)Latinos (n = 442)Japanese Americans (n = 694)
N (%)N (%)N (%)N (%)N (%)
Sex
 Males109 (30.5)118 (36.3)191 (44.0)231 (52.1)396 (57.1)
 Females248 (69.5)207 (63.7)243 (56.0)211 (47.9)298 (42.9)
Median (interquartile)
 Age (years)64.0 (59.0–69.0)60.0 (56.0–65.0)62.0 (58.0–68.0)65.0 (61.0–70.0)62.0 (58.0–69.0)
 BMI (kg/m2)27.0 (23.4–30.9)26.8 (24.1–30.8)24.8 (22.0–28.2)26.5 (24.0–29.9)24.4 (21.9–27.0)
 Cr (mg/dL)90.0 (55.0–141)60.0 (38.0–91.0)54.0 (33.0–86.0)77.0 (50.0–117)56.0 (35.0–89.0)
 Age at smoking initiation24.5 (19.5–30.5)21.5 (17.5–27.5)21.5 (18.5–26.5)23.5 (19.5–30.0)22.0 (18.5–26.5)
 Duration of smoking (years)37.5 (34.5–46.5)37.5 (33.5–46.5)43.5 (35.5–46.5)43.5 (34.5–48.0)42.5 (35.5–46.5)
 Cigarettes per day10.0 (6.00–15.0)15.0 (9.00–20.0)20.0 (10.0–20.0)8.00 (4.00–12.0)12.0 (10.0–20.0)
 Total nicotine equivalents (nmol/mL)44.7 (28.3–74.1)31.3 (20.2–48.0)36.9 (22.2–61.7)33.1 (21.6–54.0)27.3 (16.1–43.5)
 Ethanol (g/day)1.87 (0.00–15.5)1.47 (0.00–10.3)6.55 (0.00–25.9)1.28 (0.00–13.1)0.392 (0.00–12.3)
 Total vegetable (g/kcal/day)124 (88.8–172)133 (93.4–167)136 (100–180)150 (112–206)122 (91.4–165)
 Total fruit (g/kcal/day)107 (50.7–186)74.7 (38.1–135)86.9 (41.1–172)90.6 (43.4–171)75.5 (33.2–134)
  • aIncludes all study participants with total NNAL measured.