Table 1.

Selected baseline characteristics of cases and controls

WomenMen
Cases (n = 28)Controls (n = 54)Cases (n = 62)Controls (n = 121)
VariablesPrevalence (%)Prevalence (%)P valueaPrevalence (%)Prevalence (%)P valuea
Age, y
 40–493.63.7Matching variable1.63.3Matching variable
 50–5925.027.829.028.9
 60–6971.468.569.467.8
Hepatitis virus infectious statusb
 HBV7.15.6Matching variable14.514.0Matching variable
 HCV92.994.485.586.0
Menopausal status, premenopausal3.63.7Matching variable
Alcohol consumption, regular drinker10.725.90.1450.066.90.08
Smoking status, current smoker14.37.40.0848.447.90.81
BMI, ≥25 kg/m246.422.20.0233.914.9<0.01
Diabetes, yesc17.911.10.4040.327.30.07
Coffee consumption, ≥1 cup/day25.035.20.3522.640.50.02
ALT level, ≥70 IU/L53.64.0< 0.0142.47.0<0.01
Vegetable intake (g/day)d43.3 (32.5–66.0)49.1 (30.9–71.5)0.6548.1 (25.3–75.8)48.7 (30.5–75.3)0.48
Fish intake (g/day)d37.7 (22.8–57.4)38.1 (21.0–53.5)0.9358.9 (37.5–76.0)52.5 (32.7–73.2)0.40
Dietary intake of genistein (mg/day)d14.0 (10.5–20.5)10.3 (6.4–18.7)0.0111.9 (6.6–21.2)13.6 (8.2–20.4)0.63
Dietary intake of daidzein (mg/day)d8.4 (6.3–12.3)6.1 (3.8–10.0)0.017.1 (3.9–12.9)8.1 (4.9–12.2)0.63
  • aCalculated using the χ2 test and the Mann–Whitney test.

  • bPositive for hepatitis B surface antigen was regarded as indicating HBV infection and positive for anti-hepatitis C virus antibody as indicating HCV infection.

  • cDiabetes was defined as a self-reported history of diabetes, and/or antidiabetic medication use, and/or blood glucose ≥5.55 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) fasting or ≥7.77 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) nonfasting.

  • dEnergy-adjusted by using the residual method, median (interquartile range).