Table 3.

ORs and 95% CIs of primary liver cancer according to plasma concentrations of isoflavones

WomenMen
Plasma concentrationLowMiddleHighP for trendaLowMiddleHighP for trenda
Genistein (ng/mL)<28.028.0–100.9>100.9<41.941.9–111.0>111.0
 Number of cases/controls11/189/188/1821/4114/4027/40
 Matching variables adjusted OR (95% CI)b1.00 (reference)0.79 (0.27–2.33)0.65 (0.18–2.29)0.501.00 (reference)0.70 (0.31–1.56)1.36 (0.64–2.87)0.41
 Multivariable OR (95% CI)c1.00 (reference)1.41 (0.37–5.41)1.31 (0.28–6.05)0.751.00 (reference)0.61 (0.25–1.62)1.33 (0.58–3.09)0.47
Daidzein (ng/mL)<12.012.0–62.8>62.8<13.113.1–47.8>47.8
 Number of cases/controls12/1911/195/1622/4315/3825/40
 Matching variables adjusted OR (95% CI)b1.00 (reference)0.83 (0.28–2.43)0.33 (0.07–1.58)0.191.00 (reference)0.75 (0.32–1.77)1.32 (0.57–3.03)0.53
 Multivariable OR (95% CI)c1.00 (reference)1.21 (0.29–5.13)0.55 (0.10–3.19)0.501.00 (reference)0.68 (0.25–1.82)1.23 (0.47–3.21)0.70
Glycitein (ng/mL)Not detected1.0–3.4>3.4Not detected1.0–3.2>3.2
 Number of cases/controls12/269/147/1416/3917/4229/40
 Matching variables adjusted OR (95% CI)b1.00 (reference)1.43 (0.47–4.31)1.09 (0.26–4.50)0.811.00 (reference)1.02 (0.44–2.36)1.95 (0.84–4.53)0.10
 Multivariable OR (95% CI)c1.00 (reference)2.96 (0.60–14.61)1.97 (0.35–10.93)0.481.00 (reference)1.05 (0.41–2.68)2.14 (0.82–5.59)0.11
Equol (ng/mL)Not detected1.0–12.3>12.3Not detected1.0–11.2>11.2
 Number of cases/controls18/204/166/1822/4613/3527/40
 Matching variables adjusted OR (95% CI)b1.00 (reference)0.33 (0.10–1.14)0.40 (0.13–1.25)0.061.00 (reference)0.76 (0.33–1.79)1.44 (0.70–2.94)0.33
 Multivariable OR (95% CI)c1.00 (reference)0.26 (0.06–1.17)0.44 (0.13–1.49)0.111.00 (reference)0.74 (0.27–2.00)1.35 (0.60–3.04)0.47
  • aLinear trends were tested using the exposure categories as ordinal variables.

  • bMatching variables were age, sex, public health center area, fasting status at blood collection, hepatitis virus infectious status, and baseline menopausal status (for women).

  • cAdjusted for alcohol consumption (never, past, or regular drinker for women; never, past, <150, 150 to <450, ≥450 g/week ethanol for men), BMI (<25.0, ≥25.0 kg/m2), diabetes (yes, no), and coffee consumption (almost never, once a week to <1 cup/day, ≥1 cup/day).