Table 3.

HR and 95% CIs for advanced prostate cancer risk according to pro- and antioxidant intake and status and oxidative stress–related genetic variants, Netherlands Cohort Study, 1986–2003a

Pro- and antioxidant intake or status
VariableGeneSNP rsIDGenotypeNo. of casesHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)PinteractionbFDR Qc
Advanced (stage III/IV) prostate cancerd
Toenail selenium levelQ1Q2Q3Q4
SOD2rs4880TT2051.000.87 (0.52–1.47)0.83 (0.49–1.42)0.75 (0.44–1.29)
CT + CC6121.40 (0.92–2.13)1.03 (0.67–1.59)0.61 (0.40–0.95)0.44 (0.28–0.69)0.0250.28
β-carotene intakeQ1Q2Q3Q4
GPX1rs17650792AA2821.000.81 (0.54–1.22)0.61 (0.40–0.93)0.86 (0.57–1.30)
AG + GG6210.84 (0.59–1.21)1.00 (0.70–1.42)1.10 (0.77–1.57)0.85 (0.59–1.21)0.0210.10
β-carotene intakeQ1Q2Q3Q4
hOGG1rs1052133CC5241.001.32 (0.98–1.79)0.98 (0.72–1.34)1.26 (0.93–1.72)
CG + GG3791.49 (1.04–2.12)1.07 (0.77–1.50)1.51 (1.08–2.11)0.93 (0.66–1.30)0.0020.02
Vitamin C intakeQ1Q2Q3Q4
NOS2Ars9282801GG3841.000.98 (0.68–1.41)0.71 (0.49–1.02)0.93 (0.64–1.34)
GT + TT5190.70 (0.49–0.99)0.82 (0.58–1.14)1.01 (0.72–1.42)0.91 (0.65–1.27)0.0280.39
Vitamin C intakeQ1Q2Q3Q4
SOD1rs10432782TT6931.001.14 (0.87–1.50)1.29 (0.98–1.70)1.24 (0.94–1.62)
GT + GG2101.53 (1.03–2.29)1.38 (0.92–2.08)0.88 (0.59–1.31)1.24 (0.84–1.85)0.0350.25
Heme iron intakeQ1Q2Q3Q4
GPX1rs1800668AA2821.001.18 (0.79–1.76)0.53 (0.34–0.82)0.82 (0.55–1.22)
AG + GG6210.95 (0.67–1.34)1.03 (0.73–1.45)1.01 (0.72–1.44)1.08 (0.76–1.53)0.0140.19
Heme iron intakeQ1Q2Q3Q4
GPX1rs3448CC4631.001.04 (0.75–1.44)0.94 (0.66–1.32)1.35 (0.97–1.88)
CT + TT4390.92 (0.66–1.27)1.10 (0.80–1.52)0.76 (0.54–1.05)0.72 (0.52–1.01)0.0280.19
Alcohol intake0 g/d0.1–4 g/d5–14 g/d15–29 g/d≥30 g/d
hOGG1rs1052133CC5191.001.37 (0.91–2.07)1.67 (1.13–2.49)1.11 (0.73–1.68)1.10 (0.71–1.69)
CG + GG3751.41 (0.88–2.25)1.42 (0.91–2.22)1.19 (0.78–1.83)1.40 (0.91–2.16)1.65 (1.01–2.71)0.0370.52
Stage IV prostate cancere
Catechin intakeQ1Q2Q3Q4
GPX1rs17650792AA1721.000.55 (0.34–0.88)0.56 (0.35–0.90)0.38 (0.23–0.64)
AG + GG3910.79 (0.53–1.17)0.70 (0.47–1.05)0.69 (0.46–1.02)0.72 (0.49–1.08)0.0420.29
Catechin intakeQ1Q2Q3Q4
SOD2rs4880TT1531.001.51 (0.91–2.51)0.75 (0.43–1.30)1.05 (0.61–1.80)
CT + CC4101.37 (0.89–2.12)0.77 (0.49–1.21)1.02 (0.66–1.57)0.84 (0.54–1.32)0.0040.05
Heme iron intakeQ1Q2Q3Q4
GPX1rs17650792AA1721.001.47 (0.92–2.38)0.55 (0.32–0.96)1.11 (0.69–1.79)
AG + GG3911.20 (0.79–1.82)1.26 (0.83–1.90)1.22 (0.80–1.86)1.25 (0.82–1.91)0.0330.23
Heme iron intakeQ1Q2Q3Q4
hOGG1rs1052133CC3261.001.22 (0.84–1.75)1.10 (0.76–1.61)1.40 (0.98–2.01)
CG + GG2371.48 (1.00–2.18)1.66 (1.12–2.46)0.92 (0.60–1.41)1.05 (0.69–1.60)0.0350.16
Heme iron intakeQ1Q2Q3Q4
SOD1rs10432782TT4201.001.35 (0.98–1.84)1.15 (0.83–1.60)1.24 (0.90–1.70)
GT + GG1432.14 (1.36–3.34)1.61 (1.03–2.51)0.73 (0.44–1.21)1.37 (0.87–2.17)0.0060.09
Alcohol intake0 g/d0.1–4 g/d5–14 g/d15–29 g/d≥30 g/d
hOGG1rs1052133CC3231.001.49 (0.92–2.43)1.62 (1.01–2.60)1.25 (0.77–2.04)1.01 (0.60–1.71)
CG + GG2331.60 (0.92–2.77)1.51 (0.89–2.56)1.20 (0.72–2.01)1.20 (0.71–2.03)1.92 (1.09–3.40)0.0340.47
Oxidative balance scorefQ1Q2Q3Q4
PON1rs854560AA2211.001.92 (1.21–3.05)1.54 (0.98–2.42)1.49 (0.93–2.37)
AT + TT3351.71 (1.11–2.62)1.38 (0.90–2.11)1.44 (0.94–2.21)1.48 (0.97–2.28)0.0300.47

Abbreviations: rsID, reference SNP ID number; Q1–4, quartile 1 to 4.

  • aAll models were adjusted for age at baseline (years). This table presents those interactions with a P for multiplicative interaction <0.05 (n = 15). The total number of gene–environment interaction tests was 302.

  • bThe Wald statistic was used to test for multiplicative interaction. All statistical tests were two sided.

  • cFDR Q values were calculated for each pro- and antioxidant-specific interaction accounting for the number of SNPs investigated.

  • dAdvanced (International Union Against Cancer, stage III/IV) prostate cancer was stage T3–4, N+, or M1 at diagnosis.

  • eStage IV prostate cancer was stage T4, N+, or M1 at diagnosis.

  • fSum of quartile or category scores (range from 0 to 3) of intake of β-carotene, catechin, lycopene, vitamin C, and vitamin E (all are antioxidants; high intake equals high score); and heme iron intake, smoking status (never, former, current), and alcohol intake (g/d; 0.1–4, 5–14, 15–29, ≥30; all are pro-oxidants; low intake equals high score). All score constituents had an equal weight.