Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of advanced prostate cancer cases and subcohort members, Netherlands Cohort Study, 1986–2003

Advanced (stage III/IV) prostate cancera(n = 952)Stage IV prostate cancerb(n = 595)Subcohort members(n = 1,798)
%Mean (SD)%Mean (SD)%Mean (SD)
Age at baseline, y62.1 (4.1)62.3 (4.1)61.3 (4.2)
Age at diagnosis, y72.3 (5.3)72.3 (5.3)
First-degree family history of prostate cancer3.63.42.4
Smoking status
 Never12.813.112.6
 Former52.955.252.3
 Current34.331.735.0
Duration of smoking, yc32.4 (12.2)33.1 (12.1)32.8 (11.9)
Frequency of smoking, cigarettes/dc16.1 (10.5)16.4 (10.9)16.9 (10.6)
High (>90 minutes/d) nonoccupational physical activity35.133.031.8
BMI, kg/m225.0 (2.5)25.1 (2.5)25.0 (2.7)
History of diabetes2.22.13.5
Higher vocational or university degree19.421.119.1
Dietary intake
 Energy, kcal/d2,143 (494)2,126 (475)2,145 (499)
 β-carotene, mg/d2.9 (1.4)3.0 (1.5)3.0 (1.6)
 Catechin, mg/d57.3 (37.9)55.6 (36.9)57.0 (37.1)
 Lycopene, mg/d1.2 (2.6)1.2 (3.1)1.1 (1.7)
 Vitamin C, mg/d100.2 (42.4)100.2 (42.5)98.2 (43.0)
 Vitamin E, mg/d15.0 (6.7)14.8 (6.5)14.6 (6.5)
 Heme iron, mg/d2.4 (1.0)2.4 (1.1)2.4 (1.0)
 Alcohol, g/d14.8 (16.0)14.3 (11.5)15.2 (16.6)
Toenail selenium, μg/gd0.527 (0.174)0.525 (0.203)0.547 (0.113)
  • aAdvanced (International Union Against Cancer, stage III/IV) prostate cancer was stage T3−4, N+, or M1 at diagnosis.

  • bStage IV prostate cancer was stage T4, N+, or M1 at diagnosis.

  • cNever smokers were excluded.

  • dEight hundred and seventeen stage III/IV prostate cancer cases (including 516 stage IV prostate cancer cases) and 1,048 subcohort had data on toenail selenium concentrations. A smaller version of the subcohort (70%) was used for this analysis.