Table 1.

The descriptive characteristics of the multiethnic sample

European AmericansAfrican AmericansLatinosJapanese AmericansNative Hawaiians
N (%)437 (20%)364 (16%)453 (20%)674 (30%)311 (14%)
Sex, N (%)Male190 (44%)111 (31%)237 (52%)388 (58%)114 (37%)
Female247 (56%)253 (69%)216 (48%)286 (42%)197 (63%)
Age, mean (SD)Male63.3 (6.8)63.5 (6.6)66.2 (6.3)63.7 (7.0)63.0 (7.4)
Female64.0 (7.8)65.3 (7.8)64.7 (6.4)63.8 (7.4)60.4 (6.7]
All63.7 (7.4)64.7 (7.5)65.5 (6.3)63.7 (7.1)61.3 (7.1)
CPD: Mean (SD)Male20.8 (12.4)12.1 (7.6)***10.5 (8.0)***15.4 (8.7)***17.1 (10.8)**
Female15.2 (10.2)10.8 (7.1)***8.0 (6.3)***12.1 (7.8)***14.1 (8.9)
All17.6 (11.5)11.2 (7.3)***9.3 (7.3)***14.0 (8.5)***15.2 (9.7)***
Pd0.00010.16670.00030.00020.0056
NEa: Mean (SD)Male67.2 (35.5)49.8 (30.0)***45.4 (30.8)***47.3 (48.9)***48.1 (26.9)***
Female76.4 (48.1)58.5 (35.2)***54.8 (36.2)***57.0 (40.7)***61.2 (35.5)**
All72.4 (43.3)55.9 (33.9)***49.9 (33.8)***51.4 (45.9)***56.4 (33.1)***
Pd0.0290.0180.00210.00560.00050
Cot Glucb: Mean (SD)Male58.4 (15.2)44.7 (22.5)***55.9 (16.3)50.6 (14.7)***54.5 (14.4)*
Female56.9 (15.5)45.8 (23.0)***60.5 (14.6)*48.9 (14.5)***53.5 (14.1)*
All57.6 (15.4)44.0 (22.8)***58.1 (15.7)49.9 (14.6)***53.8 (14.2)**
Nic Glucc: Mean (SD)Male35.1 (19.3)27.7 (19.7)**39.0 (23.7)33.4 (17.4)30.8 (17.6)
Female35.7 (19.1)29.1 (21.1)***40.7 (21.4)*33.5 (16.9)31.2 (18.2)*
All35.4 (19.2)28.7 (20.7)***39.8 (22.6)**33.5 (17.2)31.0 (18.0)*

NOTE: P values adjusted for age (and gender) across ethnic groups (with European Americans as the reference) were indicated where significant as: *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.005; and ***, P < 0.0005.

  • aNE (nicotine equivalents) is the sum of total nicotine, total cotinine, and total 3-hydroxycotinine expressed as nmol/mg creatinine. In an independent analysis of this cohort, NEs were expressed as nmol/mL (32).

  • bCot Gluc (cotinine glucuronidation) is the ratio of the difference between total cotinine and free cotinine and total cotinine, expressed as percent.

  • cNic Gluc (nicotine glucuronidation) is the ratio of the difference between total nicotine and free nicotine and total nicotine, expressed as percent.

  • dFor CPD and NE, age-adjusted P values across ethnic groups were included (with males as the reference).