Table 2.

Number of hookah heads smoked by participants and by others during an indoor hookah-only social event

Hookah smokers by location of event
Hookah smokers (n = 105)aHookah lounge (n = 55)Home (n = 50)Pb
Number of hookah headsc smoked during an indoor hookah-only social eventn (%)n (%)n (%)
 One hookah head26 (26.8)10 (19.2)16 (35.6)0.025
 Two hookah heads26 (26.8)15 (28.9)11 (24.4)
 Three hookah heads24 (24.7)9 (17.3)15 (33.3)
 Four or more hookah heads21 (21.7)18 (34.6)3 (6.7)
Did you share the hookah with anyone?
 Yes92 (92.9)50 (92.6)42 (93.3)0.887
 No7 (7.1)4 (7.4)3 (6.7)
Number of hookah heads smoked by participants
 All hookah smokers (n = 105)
  Mean (±SD)3.26 (±3.32)3.67 (±3.42)2.78 (±3.17)0.025
  GM (95% CI)2.39 (2.07–2.77)2.75 (2.24–3.37)2.04 (1.65–2.51)
  Median (5–95 percentile)2 (1–12)3 (1–10)2 (1–13)
  (Minimum–maximum)(1–19)(1–19)(1–16)
 Daily hookah smokers (n = 20)
  Mean (±SD)4.06 (±4.98)9.6 (±6.58)1.75 (±0.75)0.005
  GM (95% CI)2.52 (1.57–4.04)7.44 (2.51–22.11)1.60 (1.21–2.12)
  Median (5–95 percentile)2 (1–19)10 (2–19)2 (1–3)
  (Minimum–maximum)(1–19)(2–19)(1–3)
 Weekly hookah smokers (n = 46)
  Mean (±SD)3.16 (±3.02)3.42 (±2.82)2.96 (±3.21)0.332
  GM (95% CI)2.32 (1.84–2.93)2.55 (1.74–3.73)2.16 (1.59–2.94)
  Median (5–95 percentile)2 (1–10)3 (1–10)2 (1–13)
  (Minimum–maximum)(1–13)(1–10)(1–13)
 Occasional hookah smokers (n = 39)
  Mean (±SD)3.00 (±2.72)2.79 (±1.76)3.67 (±4.72)0.755
  GM (95% CI)2.42 (1.97–2.96)2.42 (1.98–2.97)2.40 (1.22–4.69)
  Median (5–95 percentile)2 (1–10)2 (1–5)3 (1–16)
  (Minimum–maximum)(1–16)(1–10)(1–16)
Pd daily vs. weekly0.9260.0210.198
Pe daily vs. occasionally0.6040.0100.203
Pf weekly vs. occasionally0.7280.7640.717
Time spent at hookah events by smokers (minutes)
  Mean (±SD)183.1 (±13.01)181.9 (±7.49)184.6 (±17.49)0.419
  GM (95% CI)182.7 (180.1–185.3)181.8 (179.8–183.7)183.8 (178.6–189.2)
  Median (5–95 percentile)180.0 (175–210)180.0 (175–200)180.0 (180–226)
  (Minimum–maximum)(120–240)(165–215)(120–240)
Time spent at hookah events by non-smokers (minutes)
  Mean (±SD)182.5 (±12.74)182.0 (±15.21)183.1 (±9.60)0.683
  GM (95% CI)182.0 (179.5–184.4)181.2 (177.1–185.2)182.8 (180.1–185.4)
  Median (5–95 percentile)180.0 (180–205)180.0 (175–205)180.0 (180–200)
  (Minimum–maximum)(97–240)(97–205)(180–240)
Pg smokers vs. non-smokers0.3280.2280.908
Number of hookah heads smoked by othersh
  Mean (±SD)63.99 (±53.77)94.99 (±53.18)27.85 (±23.30)<0.001
  GM (95% CI)43.17 (37.73–49.40)80.90 (72.16–90.70)20.75 (17.72–24.30)
  Median (5–95 percentile)54 (7–185)81 (28–207)21 (6–78)
  (Minimum–maximum)(6–238)(15–238)(6–78)

NOTE: Significant levels are shown in bold.

  • aDue to missing values, numbers of categories of some variables do not sum to the total sample size.

  • bP Hookah lounge vs. home.

  • cA hookah head was defined as one hookah tobacco serving (10–20 g tobacco).

  • b,d,e,f,gP values were derived from Mann–Whitney U tests; two-tailed α level P < 0.05.

  • hUsing cell phones, every 30 minutes for 3 hours, participants recorded the number of active hookah heads being smoked by others during the hookah event with first count starting at point of entry to the hookah lounge or home hookah event.