Table 3.

Multivariate analyses of factors associated with prevalence, incidence, and clearance of any HPV, oncogenica, and nononcogenicb HPV infection in rural Chinese men, 2009–2013c

Prevalence of HPV infectionIncidence of HPV infectionClearance of HPV infection
Any HPVOncogenic HPVNononcogenic HPVAny HPVOncogenic HPVNononcogenic HPVAny HPVOncogenic HPVNononcogenic HPV
VariableAdjusted ORd (95% CI)Adjusted ORd (95% CI)Adjusted ORd (95% CI)Adjusted HRd (95% CI)Adjusted HRe (95% CI)Adjusted HRd (95% CI)Adjusted HRf (95% CI)Adjusted HRf (95% CI)Adjusted HRf (95% CI)
Age (y)
 ≤501.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.0
 >500.91 (0.68–1.22)0.96 (0.61–1.53)0.90 (0.66–1.23)0.76 (0.56–1.05)1.24 (0.77–2.01)0.65 (0.47–0.91)1.23 (0.88–1.72)1.64 (0.99–2.72)1.04 (0.67–1.60)
Education level
 Primary school or below1.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.0
 Junior middle school or above0.90 (0.71–1.14)0.81 (0.56–1.18)0.95 (0.73–1.23)0.85 (0.65–1.11)1.00 (0.66–1.53)0.88 (0.66–1.17)0.82 (0.59–1.12)0.89 (0.55–1.46)0.74 (0.49–1.12)
Type of job
 Farmer1.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.01.0
 Worker in local area1.01 (0.77–1.34)1.05 (0.70–1.58)1.01 (0.74–1.37)0.94 (0.69–1.28)1.10 (0.69–1.75)1.07 (0.77–1.48)1.09 (0.79–1.51)0.87 (0.51–1.49)1.26 (0.82–1.93)
 Worker outside0.99 (0.74–1.31)0.72 (0.47–1.12)1.13 (0.82–1.55)0.94 (0.69–1.29)1.11 (0.68–1.80)0.89 (0.62–1.26)0.82 (0.55–1.22)1.40 (0.77–2.53)0.66 (0.39–1.10)
Current smoker
 No1.0NA1.01.0NA1.0NANANA
 Yes1.29 (1.04–1.60)NA1.26 (1.00–1.59)1.28 (1.01–1.63)NA1.32 (1.01–1.73)NANANA
No. of lifetime sexual partners
 0–11.01.01.01.01.01.0NANANA
 ≥21.86 (1.40–2.46)2.00 (1.35–2.96)1.69 (1.24–2.30)1.57 (1.12–2.20)1.73 (1.06–2.81)1.50 (1.05–2.15)NANANA
Bath frequency in winter (d)
 1–71.01.01.01.01.0NANANANA
 8–300.70 (0.55–0.87)0.53 (0.36–0.77)0.84 (0.65–1.08)0.80 (0.61–1.05)0.48 (0.32–0.73)NANANANA
 >300.50 (0.35–0.71)0.43 (0.24–0.76)0.55 (0.37–0.83)0.80 (0.53–1.20)0.50 (0.26–0.94)NANANANA

NOTE: Variables with a significant level of 0.05 are shown in bold.

  • aOncogenic types in this study were 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68.

  • bNononcogenic types in this study were 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 37, 40, 42, 43, 44, 53, 54, 55, 57, 61, 62, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72, 74, 75, 77, 81, 82, 84, 85, 87, 90, 91, and 94.

  • cBackward selection with a threshold of 0.1 was used to generate the final multivariate model. Age, education level, and type of job were included in all multivariate models as design factors.

  • dAll the listed variables remained in the final multivariate model.

  • eAll the listed variables and wash genitalia before sex remained in the final multivariate model.

  • fOnly age, education level, and type of job remained in the model.