Table 3.

Adjusted geometric mean concentrationa of hormones by categories of average alcohol consumption among 2,000 premenopausal women in the NHSII

Total alcohol intake, g/d
HormoneN00.1–10.010.1–20.0e>20PtrendPercentage differenceb and 95% CI
Range, N(130–618)(251–1,162)(55–157)(38–63)
Follicular estradiol, pg/mL1,40569.766.863.01130.0762.1% (6.4%–147%)
Luteal estradiol, pg/mL1,5331431561661820.00627.2% (5.4%–53.5%)
Follicular free estradiol, pg/mL1,3690.740.710.700.710.66−4.0% (−29.7%–30.9%)
Luteal free estradiol, pg/mL1,5171.811.892.012.010.1011.5% (−6.4%–32.8%)
Follicular estrone, pg/mL1,42546.946.344.853.80.2514.9% (−2.5%–35.3%)
Luteal estrone, pg/mL1,58084.591.794.81060.00125.7% (9.7%–44.0%)
Follicular estrone sulfate, pg/mL4447518019500.0426.5% (1.8%–57.4%)
Luteal estrone sulfate, pg/mL4491,5131,6051,9000.1025.6% (−4.4%–65.0%)
Luteal progesterone, ng/dL1,5961,2201,2521,1931,3340.649.4% (−8.5%–30.8%)
DHEA, ng/dLc4769198458260.35−10.1% (−24.1%–6.5%)
DHEAS, μg/dLc1,2441311251211520.3016.4% (−4.5%–42.0%)
Testosterone, ng/dLd1,96723.923.923.023.70.52−0.7% (—11.5%–11.5%)
Free testosterone, ng/dLd1,9080.−17.9% (−28.4% to −5.9%)
Androstenedione, ng/dLd6271311281280.81−2.1% (−12.2%–9.1%)
Prolactin, ng/dLd1,30321.921.424. (−10.0%–24.7%)
SHBG, nmol/Ld1,92673.375.574.485.60.0316.8% (4.5%–30.5%)
  • aAll geometric mean concentrations are adjusted for age at blood collection (continuous), BMI at blood collection (continuous), smoking (never smoker, past smoker with ≥5 years since quitting, past smoker with <5 years since quitting, current smoker of <15 cigarettes per day, current smoker of 15+ cigarettes per day), duration of past oral contraceptive use (never, <4 years, 4+ years), age at first birth/parity (nulliparous, 1–2 children and age at first birth <25 years, 1–2 children and age at first birth ≥25 years, ≥3 children and age at first birth <25 years, ≥3 children and age at first birth ≥25 years), age at menarche (<12, 12–13, >13 years), physical activity in MET-hours/week (continuous), date of blood collection (month/year, ≤1/97, 2/97–1/98, 2/98–1/99, ≥2/99), time of day of blood collection (1–8 a.m., 9 a.m. to noon, 1–4 p.m., 5 p.m. to midnight), and fasting status (<10, ≥10 hours). Models that included luteal or average of timed samples also were adjusted for the difference between luteal blood draw date and date of next menstrual period (3–7, 8–12, 13–17, 18–21 days, unknown/untimed).

  • bPercentage difference for highest category of alcohol use vs. no alcohol use.

  • cLuteal/untimed.

  • dAverage of follicular and luteal measures, or untimed.

  • eGeometric mean concentration of follicular estrone sulfate, luteal estrone sulfate, DHEA, and androstenedione reflect alcohol intake (g/d) of 10+ g/d in highest category of alcohol use.