Table 4.

Adjusted geometric mean concentration of hormonesa by categories of average alcohol type among 2,000 premenopausal women in the NHSII

Total alcohol intake by typeb
(No. of drinks per week)
Hormone and categoryNNondrinker<11–45+gPtrend adjusted for other typecPercentage differenced and 95% CI
A. Total wine
Range, N(130–618)(99–452)(117–524)(62–225)
Follicular estradiol, pg/mL1,40380.974.772.991.30.3112.9% (−8.3%–38.9%)
Luteal estradiol, pg/mL1,5311421591531680.0517.3% (6.4%–29.3%)
Follicular free estradiol, pg/mL1,3670.820.790.750.860.245.5% (−9.3%–22.8%)
Luteal free estradiol, pg/mL1,5151.791.971.851.930.517.3% (−2.3%–17.8%)
Follicular estrone, pg/mL1,42349.448.447.949.90.791.1% (−8.4%–11.5%)
Luteal estrone, pg/mL1,57883.791.792.695.20.1312.7% (4.2%–21.8%)
Follicular estrone sulfate, pg/mL4447958269159610.2820.9% (−3.6%–51.6%)
Luteal estrone sulfate, pg/mL4491,5241,6551,5851,7060.6313.0% (−12.6%–46.0%)
Luteal progesterone, ng/dL1,5951,2171,2141,3041,2170.53−1.0% (−10.8%–9.9%)
DHEA, ng/dLe3869168878368470.20−8.2% (−21.9%–7.9%)
DHEAS, μg/dLe1,0851281191271300.721.1% (−9.3%–12.8%)
Testosterone, ng/dLf1,96724.023.723.724.20.860.7% (−5.2%–7.0%)
Free testosterone, ng/dLf1,9060.200.190.190.180.02−9.1% (−16.1% to −1.4%)
Androstenedione, ng/dLf6271311311241320.880.9% (−8.6%–11.3%)
Prolactin, ng/dLf1,30122.022.020.623.10.854.7% (−7.0%–18.0%)
SHBG, mol/Lf1,68273.075.774.977.90.366.1% (−1.5%–14.2%)
B. Total beer
Range, N(130–618)(64–310)(78–368)(26–120)
Follicular estradiol, pg/mL1,40278.582.069.986.80.9410.6% (−21.0%–54.9%)
Luteal estradiol, pg/mL1,5301441501611660.2315.7% (2.7%–30.4%)
Follicular free estradiol, pg/mL1,3660.810.800.750.750.26−7.9% (−26.7%–15.9%)
Luteal free estradiol, pg/mL1,5141.811.831.931.990.3510.3% (−4.3%–27.0%)
Follicular estrone, pg/mL1,42248.952.346.650.40.763.1% (−9.3%–17.2%)
Luteal estrone, pg/mL1,57784.492.495.295.30.1513.0% (1.8%–25.4%)
Follicular estrone sulfate, pg/mL4447639121,0328360.499.6% (−16.8%–44.4%)
Luteal estrone sulfate, pg/mL4491,5021,7021,6061,6900.7612.5% (−15.5%–49.9%)
Luteal progesterone, ng/dL1,5941,2291,2111,2811,3520.1010.0%(−3.2%–25.1%)
DHEA, ng/dLe3869138049439600.045.1% (−13.5%–27.7%)
DHEAS, μg/dLe1,0851271251301240.62−2.2% (−16.6%–14.9%)
Testosterone, ng/dLf1,96623.824.424.723.80.36−0.1% (−8.0%–8.5%)
Free testosterone, ng/dLf1,9050.200.200.200.180.87−9.7%(−18.3% to −0.3%)
Androstenedione, ng/dLf6271301341351470.0112.3% (−3.9%–31.1%)
Prolactin, ng/dLf1,30121.623.321.324.00.0811.1% (−4.5%–29.4%)
SHBG, nmol/Lf1,68173.574.475.179.20.397.8% (−1.6%–18.1%)
C. Liquor
Range, N(130–618)(81–374)(46–169)(20–34)
Follicular estradiol, pg/mL1,40078.571.583.31030.3930.8% (−35.9%–167%)
Luteal estradiol, pg/mL1,5281431631541720.4220.1% (0.6%–43.2%)
Follicular free estradiol, pg/mL1,3640.810.740.850.640.41−21.4% (−40.8%–4.2%)
Luteal free estradiol, pg/mL1,5121.801.931.821.960.978.7% (−9.8%–31.1%)
Follicular estrone, pg/mL1,42049.147.353.547.60.54−3.1% (−20.7%–18.5%)
Luteal estrone, pg/mL1,57584.394.891.61070.1327.2% (2.5%–57.7%)
Follicular estrone sulfate, pg/mL4438018339600.6319.8% (−3.9%–49.5%)
Luteal estrone sulfate, pg/mL4481,5031,6461,7320.4815.2% (−11.6%–50.3%)
Luteal progesterone, ng/dL1,5921,2261,2361,2661,2310.890.4% (−20.8%–27.3%)
DHEA, ng/dLe3859438929350.41−0.9% (−15.8%–16.8%)
DHEAS, μg/dLe1,0821311391391220.44−6.8% (−25.8%–17.1%)
Testosterone, ng/dLf1,96323.924.723.823.40.93−2.1% (−14.1%–11.5%)
Free testosterone, g/dLf1,9020.200.200.190.190.78−5.0% (−19.2%–11.6%)
Androstenedione, ng/dLf6271301331240.40−4.7% (−14.9%–6.6%)
Prolactin, ng/dLf1,29821.721.020.626.30.7121.0% (−17.0%–76.3%)
SHBG, nmol/Lf1,67873.377.475.780.00.399.1% (−6.2%–26.9%)
  • aAll geometric mean concentrations are adjusted for age at blood collection (continuous), BMI at blood collection (continuous), smoking (never smoker, past smoker with ≥5 years since quitting, past smoker with <5 years since quitting, current smoker of <15 cigarettes per day, current smoker of 15+ cigarettes per day), duration of past oral contraceptive use (never, <4 years, 4+ years), age at first birth/parity (nulliparous, 1–2 children and age at first birth < 25 years, 1–2 children and age at first birth > 25 years, >3 children and age at first birth < 25 years, >3 children and age at first birth > 25 years), age at menarche (<12, 12–13, >13 years), physical activity in MET-hours/week (continuous), date of blood collection (month/year, ≤1/97, 2/97–1/98, 2/98–1/99, ≥2/99), time of day of blood collection (1–8 a.m., 9 a.m. to noon, 1–4 p.m., 5 p.m. to midnight), and fasting status (<10, ≥10 hours). Models that included luteal or average of timed samples also were adjusted for the difference between luteal blood draw date and date of next menstrual period (3–7, 8–12, 13–17, 18–21 days, unknown/untimed).

  • bTotal alcohol by type excludes women who only drank other alcohol types.

  • cPtrend across alcohol category including all women and adjusting for other alcohol types.

  • dPercentage difference for highest category of alcohol use vs. no alcohol use.

  • eLuteal/untimed.

  • fAverage of follicular and luteal measures, or untimed.

  • gGeometric mean concentration of follicular estrone sulfate, luteal estrone sulfate, DHEA, and androstenedione reflect liquor intake of 1+ drinks per week in highest category of alcohol use.