Table 2.

Prevalence, incidence, and clearance of HPV infection among men from rural China, 2009–2013a

HPV typePrevalent cases N = 1,279Prevalence, 95% CIb (%) N = 6,182Incident casescN = 1,059Incidence rate, 95% CId (per 1,000 person-months)Newly acquired infectionseCleared infectionsfMedian time to clearance, 95% CIg (mo)
Any52617.8 (16.2–19.3)29114.6 (13.1–16.4)35920711.5 (6.5–12.4)h
Oncogenici2186.4 (5.4–7.3)1234.9 (4.1–5.8)115766.8 (6.4–12.6)h
HPV-161052.7 (2.1–3.3)592.2 (1.7–2.9)43316.6 (6.2–12.4)
HPV-18431.0 (0.7–1.3)260.9 (0.6–1.4)22206.6 (6.0–6.8)
HPV-58341.0 (0.6–1.3)230.8 (0.6–1.2)16146.4 (5.9–12.6)
HPV-45190.5 (0.2–0.6)110.4 (0.2–0.7)93NE
HPV-35130.5 (0.2–0.7)70.3 (0.1–0.5)62NE
HPV-3370.2 (0.0–0.4)60.2 (0.1–0.5)61NE
HPV-5280.2 (0.0–0.3)60.2 (0.1–0.5)4218.9 (7.3–NE)
HPV-6890.4 (0.1–0.7)50.2 (0.1–0.4)41NE
HPV-5660.1 (0.0–0.2)30.1 (0.0–0.3)2111.7 (NE–NE)
Nononcogenicj40412.4 (11.1–13.6)23910.8 (9.6–12.3)24413111.5 (6.5–12.6)h
HPV-31363.3 (2.7–4.0)883.3 (2.7–4.1)613311.6 (6.6–12.8)
HPV-57761.9 (1.4–2.3)582.1 (1.6–2.7)412311.9 (6.6–18.5)
HPV-54461.3 (0.8–1.7)291.0 (0.7–1.5)20116.6 (6.5–NE)
HPV-90330.9 (0.5–1.3)210.8 (0.5–1.2)171012.0 (6.6–12.4)
HPV-87300.8 (0.5–1.2)200.7 (0.5–1.1)16136.5 (5.8–11.7)
HPV-67240.6 (0.3–0.8)160.6 (0.4–0.9)14116.6 (5.9–11.5)
HPV-81260.7 (0.4–1.0)130.5 (0.3–0.8)746.6 (5.8-NE)
HPV-91140.4 (0.2–0.6)80.3 (0.1–0.6)7312.8 (6.5–NE)
HPV-94110.2 (0.1–0.4)80.3 (0.1–0.6)72NE
HPV-43150.4 (0.2–0.6)80.3 (0.1–0.6)73NE
HPV-11110.2 (0.1–0.4)80.3 (0.1–0.6)5211.7 (6.6–NE)
HPV-30100.3 (0.1–0.6)60.2 (0.1–0.5)5313.2 (6.6-NE)
HPV-10130.4 (0.2–0.6)60.2 (0.1–0.5)40NE
HPV-670.2 (0.0–0.3)50.2 (0.1–0.4)426.6 (5.8–NE)
HPV-27110.2 (0.1–0.4)50.2 (0.1–0.4)00NE
HPV-8460.1 (0.0–0.2)40.1 (0.1–0.4)416.7 (6.7–NE)
HPV-7570.2 (0.0–0.3)40.1 (0.1–0.4)41NE
HPV-7070.3 (0.0–0.5)40.1 (0.1–0.4)316.6 (6.6–NE)

Abbreviation: NE, not estimable because too few cases.

  • aOnly HPV types with >5 prevalent cases were listed.

  • bPrevalence was defined as the percentage of HPV-positive visits out of all counted visits during the study period in participants with adequate HPV test results (n = 6,182). 95% CIs were adjusted for correlations of repeat measurements.

  • cIncident cases were defined as the first HPV infection for a specific HPV type in one participant (n = 1,059).

  • dIncidence rate and 95% CIs were calculated on the basis of the number of events modeled as a Poisson variable for the total person-months.

  • eOnly incident infections were included. Multi-type incident infections in one participant were judged as different newly acquired infections. Incident infections detected at a participant's last visit were not included for clearance analysis.

  • fClearance was defined as two consecutive negative results after testing HPV positive for a specific type.

  • gMedian time to clearance and 95% CIs were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method.

  • h95% CIs were adjusted for possible within subject correlations.

  • iOncogenic types in this study were 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68.

  • jNononcogenic types in this study were 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 37, 40, 42, 43, 44, 53, 54, 55, 57, 61, 62, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72, 74, 75, 77, 81, 82, 84, 85, 87, 90, 91, and 94.