Table 3.

Geometric mean concentrations of cotinine and NNAL among cigar or cigarette-only smokers by frequency of smoking, NHANES 1999–2012

Primary cigar smokersSecondary cigar smokersCigar-only smokers (primary and secondary cigar smokers combined)Cigarette-only smokers
Biomarkers of exposureNontobacco usersDailyNondailyDailyNondailyDailyNondailyDailyNondaily
Serum cotinine, ng/mL
 Number of observations16,9904417754124983015,8341,183
 Geometric mean (95% CI)0.045 (0.043–0.048)58.6 (31.2–109.9)4.1 (2.8–5.8)139.7 (103.1–189.2)11.3 (6.4–20.0)105.2 (78.5–141.0)6.6 (4.6–9.4)190.6 (184.0–197.4)15.8 (12.7–19.8)
Urinary NNAL, pg/mg creatinine
 Number of observations8,11726762454501302,709550
 Geometric mean (95% CI)1.01 (0.95–1.07)147.4 (76.0–285.9)10.5 (6.3–17.5)362.5 (221.0–594.6)40.0 (22.5–71.0)249.3 (161.2–385.6)20.0 (12.3–32.6)298.8(276.6–322.7)36.8 (28.3–47.7)

NOTE: Urinary NNAL concentrations were adjusted for creatinine. NNAL data were available for 2007–2012 NHANES participants. “Daily” and “nondaily” were used to characterize cigar smoking pattern among cigar smokers, and cigarette smoking pattern among cigarette-only smokers. Primary and secondary cigar smokers were categorized as “daily cigar smokers” if they smoked cigars daily in the past 5 days and as “nondaily cigar smokers” if they smoked cigars on some days of the past 5 days. Current cigarette-only smokers were categorized as “daily cigarette smokers” if they smoked cigarettes every day, or “nondaily cigarette smokers” if they smoked cigarettes on some days.