Table 1.

Characteristics of hookah smokers and non-smokers (N = 208)a

Hookah smokers (n = 105)Non-smokers (n = 103)
n (%)n (%)Pb
Age (years)
 Mean (±SD)26.9 (±10.5)32.0 (±12.0)0.001
 Median (minimum–maximum)22 (18–61)28 (18–67)
Gender
 Male57 (54.3)49 (47.6)0.333
 Female48 (45.7)54 (52.4)
Race/ethnicity
 Arab American52 (50.5)40 (38.8)0.179
 White, Caucasian18 (17.5)25 (24.3)
 Mexican, Hispanic, or Latino8 (7.8)13 (12.6)
 Black or African American2 (1.9)6 (5.8)
 Other23 (22.3)19 (18.5)
Body mass index (BMI; kg/m2)
 <25 normal51 (48.6)43 (41.8)0.499
 ≥25 overweight39 (37.1)40 (38.8)
 ≥30 obese15 (14.3)20 (19.4)
Do you currently smoke hookah?
 Daily (at least once each day)20 (19.1)0 (0.0)
 Weekly (at least once each week but less than daily)46 (43.8)0 (0.0)
 Monthly (at least once each month but less than weekly)27 (25.7)0 (0.0)
 Occasionally (at least once a year but less than monthly)12 (11.4)0 (0.0)
Type of hookah tobacco currently smoke
 Flavored100 (100.0)0 (0.0)
 Unflavored0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Owns a hookah at home
 Yes76 (73.8)6 (7.0)<0.001
 No27 (26.2)95 (93.0)
Number of your four closest friends who currently smoke hookah
 09 (9.2)42 (52.5)<0.001
 16 (6.1)17 (21.2)
 219 (19.4)7 (8.8)
 315 (15.3)6 (7.5)
 449 (50.0)8 (10.0)
Number of people residing in your home who currently smoke hookah, including yourself
 06 (6.2)78 (86.7)<0.001
 140 (41.2)7 (7.8)
 229 (29.9)3 (3.3)
 ≥322 (22.7)2 (2.2)
Home hookah smoking restriction
 Allowed everywhere22 (22.0)3 (3.1)<0.001
 Allowed special guest/certain location64 (64.0)35 (35.7)
 Not allowed anywhere14 (14.0)60 (61.2)
In the past 30 days, how many days did people smoke hookah around you inside your home?
 At least one day49 (46.7)12 (13.3)<0.001
 Not at all56 (53.3)89 (86.7)
In the past 30 days, how many days did people smoke hookah around you inside other places?
 At least one day75 (75.0)11 (11.3)<0.001
 Not at all25 (25.0)86 (88.7)

NOTE: Significant levels are shown in bold.

  • aDue to missing values, numbers of categories of some variables do not sum to the total sample size.

  • bP Smokers vs. non-smokers: P values were derived from Mann–Whitney U tests; two-tailed α level P < 0.05.