Table 2.

Geometric mean biomarker concentrations by tobacco use status, NHANES 1999–2012

Biomarkers of exposureNontobacco usersPrimary cigar smokersSecondary cigar smokersCigarette-only smokersDual cigar/cigarette smokers
Serum cotinine, ng/mL
 Number of observations16,9902211787,017119
 Geometric mean (95% CI)0.045 (0.043–0.048)6.2 (4.2–9.2)24.2 (14.9–39.3)131.4 (123.1–140.1)102.8 (77.5–136.5)
Urinary NNAL, pg/mg creatinine
 Number of observations8,117102783,25977
 Geometric mean (95% CI)1.01 (0.95–1.07)19.1 (10.6–34.3)78.6 (40.8–151.7)215.4 (191.6–242.2)209.1 (147.1–297.1)
Blood cadmium, μg/L
 Number of observations17,2772221797,097122
 Geometric mean (95% CI)0.269 (0.264–0.275)0.276 (0.245–0.311)0.437 (0.379–0.503)0.945 (0.921–0.970)0.742 (0.638–0.863)
Blood lead, μg/dL
 Number of observations17,2772221797,097122
 Geometric mean (95% CI)1.18 (1.16–1.21)1.42 (1.29–1.56)1.91 (1.71–2.13)1.75 (1.70–1.80)1.90 (1.66–2.17)
Urinary arsenic, ng/mg creatinine
 Number of observations4,35566371,71625
 Geometric mean (95% CI)9.7 (9.2–10.3)7.3 (4.8–11.1)11.1 (8.5–14.5)7.8 (7.1–8.4)8.4 (5.9–11.9)

NOTE: Urinary NNAL and arsenic concentrations were adjusted for creatinine. NNAL data were available for 2007–2012 NHANES participants and arsenic data were available for 2003–2012 NHANES participants.