Table 3.

ANA prevalence in the U.S. female population ages 20 years and older in NHANES (1999–2004) by exogenous hormone use

PremenopausalPostmenopausal
WeightedPORWeightedPOR
NaN ANA+a% ANA+ (95% CI)(95% CI)bNaANA+a% ANA+ (95% CI)(95% CI)b
Oral contraceptives
 Never2094619.9 (14.2–27.1)(Reference)3917119.7 (15.0–25.6)(Reference)
 Current941617.4 (11.3–25.6)0.70 (0.36–1.36)00
 Past4788719.2 (15.6–23.4)0.64 (0.44–0.93)3275515.6 (12.0–20.2)1.22 (0.77–1.94)
  Pc0.8760.224
Oral contraceptives, total years of use
 Never used2094619.9 (14.2–27.1)(Reference)3917119.7 (15.0–25.6)(Reference)
 <1 year1211616.6 (9.5–27.5)0.47 (0.24–0.93)64911.8 (6.3–21.1)0.96 (0.41–2.26)
 1–2 years1153128.8 (19.5–40.4)1.15 (0.63–2.09)7899.3 (4.2–19.4)0.69 (0.27–1.76)
 3–5 years1362217.7 (10.8–27.4)0.60 (0.33–1.12)631015.1 (9.8–22.5)1.31 (0.63–2.75)
 6–10 years1242114.0 (8.4–22.4)0.54 (0.31–0.96)741523.2 (11.9–40.3)1.47 (0.78–2.78)
 >10 years731318.1 (10.3–29.8)0.59 (0.27–1.30)43915.4 (7.9–27.9)1.45 (0.60–3.50)
  Pc0.3380.2320.3210.134
Any use of estrogen pills or patch
 Never72214219.9 (16.8–23.4)(Reference)3876919.4 (14.7–25.3)(Reference)
 Current3049.1 (2.8–25.8)NS1642916.3 (10.4–24.5)1.34 (0.75–2.37)
 Past1718.4 (1.1–43.0)NS1472114.3 (9.8–20.5)0.89 (0.56–1.43)
  Pc0.0730.339
Estrogen pills/patch, years used
 Never used72214219.9 (16.8–23.4)(Reference)3876919.4 (14.7–25.3)(Reference)
 <1 year2012.4 (0.3–16.1)NS47819.4 (6.7–44.5)1.13 (0.44–2.93)
 1–4 years12111.4 (1.5–51.9)NS66912.0 (6.5–21.2)0.90 (0.41–1.95)
 5–9 years10110.3 (1.4–48.3)NS60812.1 (5.9–23.2)1.03 (0.47–2.25)
 10+ years5229.3 (5.1–76.3)NS1352517.5 (11.2–26.3)1.24 (0.72–2.16)
  Pc<0.0010.4760.697

Abbreviation: +, positive.

  • aN is the number of subjects within the sample, not an estimated count for the U.S. population; % is adjusted for sample weights; individual totals for each variable may vary due to the number of missing or “don't know” responses.

  • bPOR and 95% CIs estimated by survey logistic regression, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and PIR. Values were not calculated (—) where numerically infeasible or not shown (NS) for categories with fewer than 5 ANA-positive women.

  • cP value for the Wald χ2 test for general association or linear trend test in regression models for POR.