Table 1.

Prevalence of characteristics at baseline across quintiles of DII (with supplements), IWHS, 1986–2010

DII (with supplements)b
Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5
<−2.75−2.75 to −1.76−1.75 to −0.57−0.56 to 1.10>1.10
Median = −3.29Median = −2.26Median = −1.21Median = 0.23Median = 2.13
Characteristicsa [mean (SD) or %](N = 6,940)(N = 6,941)(N = 6,941)(N = 6,941)(N = 6,940)
Age (years)62.0 (4.2)61.7 (4.2)61.6 (4.2)61.4 (4.1)61.2 (4.2)
Total energy intake (kcal/day)2,119.1 (664.5)2,009.5 (631.4)1,816.4 (532.2)1,684.8 (446.7)1,362.9 (406.7)
Total fat (% kcal/day)31.4 (5.4)33.5 (5.3)34.2 (5.5)34.7 (5.6)36.0 (6.0)
Dietary fiber (g/1,000 kcal/day)13.5 (3.2)11.6 (2.9)10.8 (2.9)10.5 (2.9)9.5 (2.8)
Vitamin supplement use (% taking)
 Any85.073.965.547.334.1
 Multivitamin68.950.235.39.92.0
 Calcium63.253.046.637.429.2
 Vitamin C32.021.916.99.53.8
 Vitamin E28.619.814.97.42.0
BMI (%; kg/m2)
 ≤24.942.540.239.438.538.6
 25–3037.137.137.436.936.2
 ≥3020.522.723.224.725.2
Education (%)
 Less than high school15.216.617.619.321.6
 High school36.440.842.143.747.5
 More than high school48.442.640.337.030.9
Smoking (%)
 Never70.368.565.764.659.0
 Former20.319.119.119.718.9
 Current9.512.515.315.722.1
Alcohol intake (%)
 0 g/day58.654.252.754.355.0
 <15 g/day34.139.841.139.438.2
 ≥15 g/day7.46.06.26.46.8
Level of physical activityc (%)
 Low33.742.348.451.961.2
 Middle29.830.227.427.422.8
 High36.527.524.220.716.1
Hormone therapy use (yes, %)43.839.939.236.934.0
Diabetes at baseline (yes, %)6.66.46.25.95.3
History of aspirin use (1992 survey, ever %)73.572.771.671.471.0
History of NSAIDs use (1992 survey, ever %)84.283.882.682.481.6
  • aAll variables are measured at baseline (1986) unless otherwise noted. Some column percentages are presented; they do not always add to 100 because of rounding.

  • bQuintile 1 refers to scores indicating the most antiinflammatory diet, and quintile 5 refers to scores indicating the most proinflammatory diet.

  • cPhysical activity level: High, more than 4 times per week for moderate physical activities (e.g., bowling, golf, light sports or physical exercise, gardening, taking long walks) or more than 2 times per week for vigorous physical activities (e.g., jogging, racquet sports, swimming, aerobics, strenuous sports); Middle, more than 2 times per week for moderate physical activities or a few times a month for both moderate and vigorous physical activities; Low, those not belonging to activity level 2 or 3.