Table 2.

Distribution of food groups across quintiles of DII (with supplements)a, IWHS, 1986–2010

Quintile1Quintile2Quintile3Quintile4Quintile5
Food groups (servings/week)Direction increase with DIIbDifference (Q5 − Q1)/Q1MeanMeanMeanMeanMean
Other vegetables (other than green leafy vegetables or potatoes)—65%27.319.816.013.89.7
Low-fat dairy—63%10.69.17.96.63.9
Green leafy vegetables—62%7.55.54.43.92.8
Fish/seafood—62%2.61.91.51.31.0
Fruit (no juice)—61%19.915.612.911.27.7
Nuts—61%3.52.82.21.91.4
Whole grains—60%16.812.910.89.36.7
Beans without soy—56%0.70.60.50.40.3
Fruit juice—52%6.65.85.04.53.1
Poultry—52%2.62.01.81.61.2
Wine—39%0.70.60.50.50.4
Potatoes—31%3.53.53.23.12.4
Salty snacks—30%4.54.43.93.73.1
Margarine—27%10.410.19.69.27.6
Tea—26%3.43.33.02.92.5
Eggs—24%2.42.42.32.11.8
Sweets without chocolate—22%8.19.18.27.76.3
Low-calorie beverages—20%2.01.81.71.61.6
Red meat—13%5.86.56.25.95.0
Chocolate0—3%0.60.80.80.70.6
High-fat dairy0—3%9.610.910.410.29.3
Refined grains00%8.38.99.09.28.2
Nitrate processed meat01%1.82.12.12.01.8
French fries+6%0.30.40.40.40.4
High-sugar beverages+18%1.21.41.41.41.4
Liquor+24%0.80.80.80.91.0
Fried food+29%1.82.22.32.32.3
Coffee+36%9.911.411.812.113.5
Beer+37%0.50.60.60.70.7
Butter+56%1.41.92.02.02.2
  • aThe foods listed are meant to give the reader a sense of how dietary intake varies across DII quintiles; though some listed foods are indeed among the 37 parameters that are used in computation of DII in the IWHS, these are not meant to be a list of contributors to the DII.

  • b+ indicates increase across quintiles;—indicates decrease across quintiles; 0 indicates no or <5% change.