Table 4.

DII from foods only, DII from vitamin supplements, and colorectal cancer risk; IWHS, 1986–2010.

Cases (n)HRa (95% CI)HRb (95% CI)Cases (n)HRa (95% CI)HRb (95% CI)Cases (n)HRa (95% CI)HRb (95% CI)
Colorectal cancerColon cancerRectal cancer
DII from foods onlyc
Continuous1,6361.09 (1.03–1.14)1.08 (1.01–1.15)1,3291.08 (1.02–1.14)1.06 (0.99–1.14)3251.11 (0.99–1.24)1.13 (0.98–1.31)
Quintilesd
 Quintile 12941 (referent)1 (referent)2371 (referent)1 (referent)581 (referent)1 (referent)
 Quintile 23231.11 (0.95–1.30)1.07 (0.90–1.26)2711.15 (0.96–1.37)1.10 (0.91–1.32)601.07 (0.74–1.54)1.07 (0.73–1.56)
 Quintile 33381.16 (0.99–1.36)1.12 (0.94–1.33)2681.12 (0.94–1.34)1.07 (0.88–1.30)731.35 (0.95–1.92)1.37 (0.93–2.01)
 Quintile 43511.21 (1.03–1.43)1.16 (0.97–1.40)2931.23 (1.03–1.47)1.16 (0.95–1.43)611.16 (0.80–1.68)1.20 (0.79–1.84)
 Quintile 53301.17 (0.99–1.38)1.12 (0.91–1.38)2601.12 (0.93–1.35)1.06 (0.84–1.33)731.43 (0.99–2.05)1.48 (0.94–2.34)
P trend0.0040.080.020.270.100.13
DII from supplementse
Continuous1,6361.04 (0.99–1.10)1.02 (0.97–1.08)1,3291.04 (0.98–1.09)1.02 (0.96–1.08)3251.05 (0.93–1.17)1.02 (0.91–1.15)
Categoriesf
 1 (N = 5,824)2730.91 (0.79–1.04)0.94 (0.82–1.09)2260.84 (0.69–1.02)0.84 (0.69–1.03)521.10 (0.74–1.64)1.10 (0.73–1.64)
 2 (N = 5,824)2360.81 (0.70–0.94)0.84 (0.73–0.98)1860.91 (0.74–1.11)0.89 (0.72–1.09)531.30 (0.88–1.92)1.21 (0.81–1.81)
 3 (N = 5,826)2560.89 (0.77–1.02)0.89 (0.77–1.03)1991.09 (0.94–1.27)1.05 (0.90–1.23)611.08 (0.79–1.49)1.02 (0.74–1.42)
 4 (N = 17,229)8711 (referent)1 (referent)7181 (referent)1 (referent)1591 (referent)1 (referent)
P trend0.090.290.150.360.560.88
  • aAdjusted for age and the other DII variable.

  • bAdjusted for age, the other DII variable, BMI, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, HRT use, education, diabetes, and total energy intake.

  • cThese are for foods only, exclusive of supplement intake.

  • dReference category is the lowest (i.e., most antiinflammatory) quintile; increasing quintiles of DII from food groups represent increasing inflammatory scores.

  • eThis is obtained by subtracting the DII score for foods only from the DII derived by including both foods and supplements.

  • fReference category represents nonsupplement users; categories 1 to 3 represent tertiles of the DII from supplement users. Category 1 represents women with the greatest contribution from supplements to the DII score. DII score median (range): categories 1, −3.00 (<—2.0552); 2, −1.31 (—2.0552 to −0.7616); 3, −0.34 (—0.7615 to 0.0000); 4, 0.00 (0.0000 to 0.1765).