Table 1.

WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention and scoring criteria

Cases (n = 1,806)Controls (n = 12,005)
WCRF/AICR recommendationsPersonal recommendationsOperationalizationScore%%
1. Body fatness. Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight.1a. Ensure that body weight throughout childhood and adolescent growth projects toward the lower end of the normal BMI range at the age of 21 years.Insufficient informationNA
1b. Maintain body weight within the normal range from the age of 21 years.Lean at aged 20, 40, and trial entry121.721.4
Lean at 2 timepoints0.531.130.4
Overweight at aged 20, 40, and trial entry047.248.2
1c. Avoid weight gain and increases in waist circumference throughout adulthood.WC <94 cm141.541.3
WC ≥94 to <102 cm0.537.136.1
WC ≥102 cm021.422.6
2. Physical activity. Be physically active as part of your everyday life.2a. Be moderately physically active, equivalent to brisk walking for 30 minutes every day.PA ≥7 times/wk128.127.1
PA 3 to <7 times/wk0.533.832.9
PA <3 times/wk038.140.0
2b. As fitness improves, aim for 60 minutes of moderate or for 30 minutes of vigorous physical activity every day.Insufficient information availableNA
2c. Limit sedentary habits such as watching television.No information availableNA
3. Foods and drinks that promote weight gain. Limit consumption of energy-dense foods; avoid sugary drinks.3a. Consume energy-dense foods sparingly.DED ≤125 kcal·100 g−1·d−1116.218.0
DED >125 to ≤175 kcal·100 g−1·d−10.563.162.0
DED >175 kcal/100·100 g−1·d−1020.720.0
3b. Avoid sugary drinks.aNo sugary drinks or ≤1 fruit juice145.144.5
≤250 g/day sugary drinks or >1 to ≤2 fruit juice0.536.735.8
>250 g/day sugary drinks or >2 fruit juice018.219.7
3c. Consume fast foods sparingly, if at all.Insufficient information available
4. Plant foods. Eat mostly foods of plant origin.4a. Eat 5 portions/servings (400 g) of a variety of nonstarchy vegetables and of fruit every day.F&V ≥400 g/day153.356.3
F&V ≥200 to <400 g/day0.537.234.6
F&V <200 g/day09.59.1
4b. Eat relatively unprocessed cereals (grains) and/or pulses (legumes) with every meal.NSP ≥18 g/day163.365.0
NSP ≥ 10 to <18 g/day0.533.231.8
NSP <10 g/day03.53.2
4c. Limit refined starchy foods.Insufficient information available
4d. People who consume starchy roots or tubers as staples should also ensure sufficient intake of non starchy vegetables, fruit, and pulses (legumes).Not applicable to our study population
5. Animal foods. Limit intake of red meat and avoid processed meat.5a. People who eat red meat should consume <500 g/wk and very few, if any, processed meats.Red and processed meat <500 g/wk and processed meat <3 g/day13.65.0
Red and processed meat <500 g/wk and processed meat ≥3 g/day to ≤20 g/day0.528.326.1
Red and processed meat ≥500 g/wk or processed meat >20 g/day068.168.9
6. Alcoholic drinks. Limit alcoholic drinks.6a. If alcoholic drinks are consumed, limit consumption to 2 drinks/day for men and 1 drink/day for women.Alcohol ≤20 g/day154.753.9
Alcohol >20 g/day to ≤30 g/day0.514.314.9
Alcohol >30 g/day031.031.2

Abbreviations: DED, dietary energy density; F&V, fruits and vegetables; NSP, nonstarch polysaccharides; PA, physical activity; WC, waist circumference.

  • aSugary drinks include nondiet soft drink, fruit squash and fruit juice. Fruit juice cutoffs apply to men who consumed fruit juice only.