Table 4.

Combined effects of BMI and glucose levels on risk of obesity-related cancers

BMI/blood glucosea<25/Nl glucose<25/Abnl glucose≥25/Nl glucose≥25/Abnl glucose
All subjects
N1,3561721,911324
 Cancer cases/person-years121/24,12210/2,576221/33,19334/4,410
 IR/10,000 person-years50.238.866.677.1
 HR (95% CI)
  Unadjusted1.0 (reference)0.74 (0.38–1.5)1.3 (1.1–1.7)1.7 (1.2–2.5)
  Adjusted model 1b1.0 (reference)0.77 (0.39–1.5)1.5 (1.2–1.8)2.1 (1.4–3.0)
  Adjusted model 2c1.0 (reference)0.77 (0.39–1.5)1.5 (1.1–2.0)2.1 (1.4–3.3)
  Adjusted model 3d1.0 (reference)0.78 (0.40–1.5)1.4 (1.1–1.8)2.0 (1.3–3.0)
  Adjusted model 4e1.0 (reference)0.80 (0.40–1.6)1.6 (1.2–2.1)2.2 (1.4–3.4)
Male subjects
 IR/10,000 person-years25.919.348.848.4
 HR (95% CI)
  Unadjusted1.0 (reference)0.81 (0.19–3.5)1.9 (1.2–3.1)2.1 (1.0–4.4)
  Adjusted model 1b1.0 (reference)0.82 (0.19–3.5)1.9 (1.2–3.1)2.2 (1.1–4.5)
  Adjusted model 2c1.0 (reference)0.83 (0.19–3.5)1.9 (0.95–3.8)2.0 (0.85–4.8)
  Adjusted model 3d1.0 (reference)0.86 (0.20–3.7)1.4 (0.81–2.5)1.6 (0.71–3.5)
  Adjusted model 4e1.0 (reference)0.90 (0.21–3.8)1.6 (0.90–2.9)1.9 (0.83–4.1)
Female subjects
 IR/10,000 person-years61.545.480.4113.8
 HR (95% CI)
  Unadjusted1.0 (reference)0.78 (0.36–1.7)1.3 (1.0–1.7)2.0 (1.3–3.2)
  Adjusted model 1b1.0 (reference)0.75 (0.35–1.6)1.4 (1.1–1.8)2.2 (1.4–3.5)
  Adjusted model 2c1.0 (reference)0.75 (0.35–1.6)1.4 (1.0–2.0)2.3 (1.3–3.9)
  Adjusted model 3d1.0 (reference)0.75 (0.35–1.6)1.4 (1.0–1.9)2.2 (1.3–3.7)
  Adjusted model 4e1.0 (reference)0.76 (0.35–1.6)1.5 (1.1–2.1)2.5 (1.5–4.2)

Abbreviations: Abnl, abnormal; IR, incidence rate; Nl, normal.

  • aNl versus Abnl glucose: <125 (not on insulin or oral hypoglycemics) versus ≥125 mg/dL or treated.

  • bModel 1: Adjusted for age, sex (in all-subjects models), height, education level, alcohol, cigarettes/day, and physical activity.

  • cModel 2: Model 1 variables plus adjustment for BMI (kg/m2) within categories.

  • dModel 3: Model 1 variables plus WC.

  • eModel 4: Model 1 variables plus WC and occurrence of elevated glucose and obesity (BMI > 28) during follow-up (up to 4 years before cancer occurrence) modeled as time-varying covariates.